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Over-scripting CSCL

The risks of blending collaborative learning with instructional design
Zu finden in: Three worlds of CSCL (Seite 61 bis 91), 2002
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iconZusammenfassungen

Lars KobbeIn a pioneering attempt to analyze the different kinds of computer-supported scenarios that were regarded as collaboration scripts, Dillenbourg (2002) identified a number of aspects that served as a preliminary framework for script comparison and design. Dillenbourg (2002) described scripts as a sequence of phases, each characterized by five attributes: type of task to be accomplished, group formation and composition, distribution of task within and among groups, type and mode of interaction/communication (e.g., co-located vs. remote, synchronous vs. asynchronous, text-based vs. voice-based, etc.), and timing/duration of the phase. From phase to phase, each of these attributes can change. The allocation and reallocation of roles and activities, as well as physical or virtual resources are considered to be part of the task distribution.
Von Lars Kobbe im Text Framework on multiple goal dimensions for computer-supported scripts (2005)
Pierre DillenbourgFree collaboration does not systematically produce learning. One way to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning is to structure interactions by engaging students in well-defined scripts. A collaboration script is a set of instructions prescribing how students should form groups, how they should interact and collaborate and how they should solve the problem. In computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), the script is reified in the interface of the learning environment. This contribution dismantles the concept of script. Syntactically, a script is sequence of phases and each phase can be described by five attributes. The grammatical combination of these elements may however produce any kind of pedagogical method, even those that have nothing to do with the idea of collaborative learning. On the one hand, the definition of scripts constitutes a promising convergence between educational engineering and socio-cultural approaches but, on the other hand, it drifts away from the genuine notion of collaborative learning. Will the fun and the richness of group interactions survive to this quest for effectiveness? The answer depends on the semantics of collaborative scripts: what is the design rationale, what is the core mechanism in the script through which the script designer expects to foster productive interactions and learning?
Von Pierre Dillenbourg im Buch Three worlds of CSCL (2002) im Text Over-scripting CSCL auf Seite 61
Beat Döbeli Honegger
Von Beat Döbeli Honegger, erfasst im Biblionetz am 25.06.2006
Jasmina HasanbegovicPierre Dillenbourg introduces the script concept as a way to enhance computer-supported collaborative learning by structuring productive interactions. In particular, the author investigates the compatibility of the socio-cultural approach of collaborative learning and the approach of educational engineering. He presents a syntax for collaborative scripts and emphasises the semantics of these scripts for the transparency of the educational meaning and added value of collaborative learning. A collaboration script is a set of instructions specifying how the group members should interact, how they should collaborate, and how they should solve the problem. It is a detailed and explicit contract between the teacher and a group of students regarding their mode of collaboration.
First, the author illustrates examples of CSCL scripts like the grid script, the ArgueGraph script, the UniverSante script, and others he used in his own courses or in research projects. Second, he describes scripts as a linear sequence of phases which specify how students should collaborate and solve the problem. He introduces five attributes of a script: the task definition, the group definition, the intra- or/and intergroup distribution of input, activity, the mode of interaction, and the timing of collaborative scripts. Third, he completes the grammar of scripts by introducing the semantics and the pedagogical meaning of the scripts. The design rational reflects a hypothesis which relates the social interactions supported by the script with respect to the learning objectives. Moreover, several levels of “coercion" and the most achievable appropriation (simplicity of the script guarantees students and tutors to adopt and internalise the script) have to be emphasised as well the issue of generalisibility concerning target knowledge and adaptation to the target audience discussed. Finally, the author summarises the specification of the script features as a pre-condition to establish effective scripts but also discusses the risk of over scripting collaboration.
This book chapter can be regarded as an introduction to CSCL scripts which are a promising method for designing and developing computer-supported collaborative scenarios as well as for enhancing the dialogue between educational theory and educational engineering. For this dialogue, more research is necessary to investigate the semantic representation of scripts to avoid fake collaboration, the multidimensional approach including student-student interactions as well as student-teacher interactions, and the balance between abstraction level and domain specifity to support generalisability.
[from http://www.elearning-reviews.org]
Von Jasmina Hasanbegovic, erfasst im Biblionetz am 08.05.2005

iconBemerkungen

Nikol RummelHans SpadaDillenbourg (2002) expressed concern that there may be a danger to "overscript" collaborative interaction. Scripting collaboration might prevent the independent, exploratory thinking required for generative learning or problem-solving. This, Dillenbourg argues, is especially true for highly coercive scripts which dictate interaction in a very detailed and inflexible way. A high degree of coercion might also decrease student motivation.
Von Nikol Rummel, Hans Spada im Buch Scripting Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (2007) im Text Can People Learn Computer-Mediated Collaboration By Following a Script? auf Seite 50

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Personen
KB IB clear
M. J. Baker, H. Barrows, Donald F. Dansereau, Pierre Dillenbourg, Maia Engeli, Frank Fischer, Tia Hansen, Patrick Jermann, Richard Joiner, Heinz Mandl, A. M. O'Donnell, Daniel Schneider, Daniel L. Schwartz, Gerry Stahl, R. Tamblyn, David Traum, Armin Weinberger

Aussagen
KB IB clear
collaboration scripts können die Motivation der Lernenden verringern

Begriffe
KB IB clear
ArgueGraph, Asynchrone Kommunikation, collaboration scriptcollaboration script, ConceptGridScript, CSCLComputer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Face to Face Kommunikation (F2F), free-rider effectfree-rider effect, Interaktioninteraction, jigsaw classjigsaw class, Jigsaw methodJigsaw method, Lernenlearning, microworldmicroworld, PHASE(x), problem-based learningproblem-based learning, Simulation, synchron/asynchron, Synchrone Kommunikation, Taxonomietaxonomy, UniversantéScript
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1980Problem-based learning (H. Barrows, R. Tamblyn) 10200
1999Collaborative Learning (Pierre Dillenbourg) 3, 6, 4, 5, 3, 1, 4, 2, 5, 7, 3, 3633231835
2001  bits and spaces (Maia Engeli) 4, 5, 6, 3, 3, 4, 2, 5, 4, 8, 3, 1128513140
2002   Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (Gerry Stahl) 4, 6, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 4, 5, 5, 2445021274
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1992Scripted Cooperation in Student Dyads (A. M. O'Donnell, Donald F. Dansereau) 1, 3, 7, 5, 4, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 12121524
1995    The Emergence of Abstract Representations in Dyad Problem Solving (Daniel L. Schwartz) 2, 4, 3, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2972140
1997    Semi-structured interface in collaborative problem-solving (Patrick Jermann, Daniel Schneider) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1311242
1999    What do you mean by 'collaborative learning'? (Pierre Dillenbourg) 3, 5, 3, 1, 3, 1, 5, 4, 7, 2, 2, 4322141046
1999    An analysis of learner arguments in a collective learning environment (Patrick Jermann, Pierre Dillenbourg) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1451355
1999The Role of Grounding in Collaborative Learning Tasks (M. J. Baker, Tia Hansen, Richard Joiner, David Traum) 3000
2002Task and Interaction Regulation in Controlling a Traffic Simulation (Patrick Jermann) 3000
2002Fostering computer supported collaborative learning with cooperation scripts and scaffolds (Armin Weinberger, Frank Fischer, Heinz Mandl) 5100

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