Elementary school Children's Images of Science
Zu finden in: Constructionism in Practice, 1996
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In the last chapter, "Elementary School Children's Images of Science," Aaron Brandes introduces the framework of image of science as a tool for understanding and enhancing children's science learning. Science-education research has established that children's science learning depends critically on their ideas about science, scientists, and experimentation. Brandes extends this research to include affective components such as the child's identification with science or alienation from it. He describes three studies with elementary-school students, designed to probe children's images of science. The studies show that children's excitement about science decreases with age, even as their ideas about science become, in many ways, more sophisticated. Furthermore, the process by which new knowledge is generated remains mysterious, leaving most children on the "outside" of science. In his conclusions, Brandes proposes criteria for evaluating science activities, based on his images-of-science framework. Drawing on results from the study of perspective-taking, Ackermann argues that the ability to decenter from one's own standpoint and to take another person's point of view requires the construction of cognitive invariants: a recasting of the world's stabilities that transcends any given viewpoint. According to Ackermann, this separation is a necessary step toward the construction of a deeper understanding; adopting a god's eye view is by no means contrary to situating one's own stance in the world. Ackermann notes that the process of learning includes opposites: forging relationships and creating separations at the same time. One cannot relate without, at times, separating.Von Yasmin B. Kafai, Mitchel Resnick im Buch Constructionism in Practice (1996) im Text Introduction