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A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis

Erstpublikation in: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Volume 3, Number 2 / Juni 2008
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Ulrike CreßIn the remainder of this article we will present a theoretical model of collaborative knowledge building with wikis by assuming a systemic perspective. In this context we will discuss the differential modes of operation in social and cognitive systems. Psychological research has described the cognitive processes responsible for individual learning as assimilation and accommodation. The question arises if there are equivalent processes in social systems such as wikis. Since we are convinced there are equivalent processes, we present this article to lead to a better understanding of the processes of collaborative knowledge building. In the following presentation, we will distinguish between the processes of externalization and internalization. We will clarify these processes by applying Wikipedia examples to our model in order to illustrate our notions and to provide an empirical basis. We will then describe the four processes of learning and knowledge building that result from the distinction between external and internal processes on the one hand, and between assimilation and accommodation on the other hand. Finally, we will describe the motivational aspects of collaborative knowledge building with wikis. We attribute people’s motivation to participate in collaborative knowledge building to their perception of incongruities and to the perceived valence of the topic.
Von Ulrike Creß, Joachim Kimmerle im Text A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis (2008)
Ulrike CreßWikis provide new opportunities for learning and for collaborative knowledge building as well as for understanding these processes. This article presents a theoretical framework for describing how learning and collaborative knowledge building take place. In order to understand these processes, three aspects need to be considered: the social processes facilitated by a wiki, the cognitive processes of the users, and how both processes influence each other mutually. For this purpose, the model presented in this article borrows from the systemic approach of Luhmann as well as from Piaget’s theory of equilibration and combines these approaches. The model analyzes processes which take place in the social system of a wiki as well as in the cognitive systems of the users. The model also describes learning activities as processes of externalization and internalization. Individual learning happens through internal processes of assimilation and accommodation, whereas changes in a wiki are due to activities of external assimilation and accommodation which in turn lead to collaborative knowledge building. This article provides empirical examples for these equilibration activities by analyzing Wikipedia articles. Equilibration activities are described as being caused by subjectively perceived incongruities between an individuals’ knowledge and the information provided by a wiki. Incongruities of medium level cause cognitive conflicts which in turn activate the described processes of equilibration and facilitate individual learning and collaborative knowledge building.
Von Ulrike Creß, Joachim Kimmerle im Text A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis (2008)

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Personen
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Carl Bereiter, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Axel Bruns, Todd Bryant, Ward Cunningham, Kushal Dave, Mark Guzdial, Hee-Seop Han, Sun-Gwan Han, Sal Humphreys, Colleen Kehoe, Soo-Hwan Kim, Bo Leuf, Niklas Luhmann, Kevin Makice, Humberto R. Maturana, Michele Notari, Seymour Papert, Christian Pentzold, Silvan Reinhold, Will Richardson, Jochen Rick, Marlene Scardamalia, Sebastian Seidenglanz, Gerry Stahl, David Turner, Francisco J. Varela, Fernanda B. Viégas, Chien-min Wang, Martin Wattenberg

Fragen
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Warum beteiligen sich Menschen an einem Wiki?

Begriffe
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AkkommodationAccommodation, Assimilationassimilation, Autopoieseautopoiesis, CSCLComputer-Supported Collaborative Learning, CSCWComputer-supported collaborative work, social softwaresocial software, Strukturelle Koppelung, Systemsystem, Weblogsblogging, Wikiwiki, Wiki in educationWiki in education, Wikipedia
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Bücher
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1969General System Theory (Ludwig von Bertalanffy) 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 21722225
1980   Autopoiesis and Cognition (Humberto R. Maturana, Francisco J. Varela) 5, 5, 1, 4, 4, 10, 1, 2, 3, 1, 3, 1471113093
1982    Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 12, 15, 12, 11, 10, 4, 6, 12, 11, 14, 16, 61934564501
1984   Soziale Systeme (Niklas Luhmann) 2, 6, 4, 38, 2, 9, 7, 6, 4, 3, 5, 3573932346
1996CSCL (Timothy D. Koschmann) 2, 3, 5, 7, 3, 2, 3, 4, 2, 5, 8, 199501960
1997   Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft (Niklas Luhmann) 2, 1, 2, 1, 23, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 232321159
2001    The Wiki Way (Bo Leuf, Ward Cunningham) 11, 11, 10, 11, 10, 16, 12, 9, 9, 11, 11, 1010754103507
2002   Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (Gerry Stahl) 4, 4, 6, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 4, 5, 5445051272
2005  WikiSym 20052, 6, 11, 10, 6, 10, 5, 11, 17, 11, 8, 9786191360
2006    Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms (Will Richardson) 3, 7, 3, 5, 2, 5, 6, 3, 4, 17, 14, 122571122829
2006Educause Quarterly 2/06 Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt 2, 4, 2, 5, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2, 110451557
2006International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Volume 13, 6, 4, 6, 7, 2, 2, 2, 6, 5, 5, 413784348
2006WikiSym 20065, 9, 8, 6, 6, 8, 6, 9, 8, 14, 12, 56512151396
2006Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing7, 11, 11, 16, 20, 21, 12, 13, 7, 15, 10, 115063111347
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Texte
Jahr UmschlagTitelAbrufeIBOBKBLB
1994    Computer Support for Knowledge-Building Communities (Marlene Scardamalia, Carl Bereiter) 2, 3, 1, 5, 1, 6, 3, 2, 5, 9, 3, 350731245
2001   Beyond Adoption to Invention (Mark Guzdial, Jochen Rick, Colleen Kehoe) 1, 4, 3, 4, 1, 6, 4, 6, 6, 9, 4, 6282061834
2002Contributions to a Theoretical Framework for CSCL (Gerry Stahl) 1, 4, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 23152449
2004    Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with history flow Visualizations (Fernanda B. Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, Kushal Dave) 2, 4, 4, 4, 4, 2, 4, 3, 3, 5, 2, 321133889
2004    Extending the Wiki Paradigm for Use in the Classroom (Chien-min Wang, David Turner) 3, 2, 8, 4, 4, 3, 2, 7, 5, 2, 3, 114101487
2005    Wikis in Teaching and Assessment (Axel Bruns, Sal Humphreys) 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 3, 5, 5, 4, 23292694
2006    Situating CoWeb (Mark Guzdial, Jochen Rick) 4, 4, 6, 3, 2, 3, 2, 4, 8, 6, 5, 312373846
2006    Social Software in Academia (Todd Bryant) 6, 1, 3, 3, 1, 3, 4, 3, 6, 4, 4, 35243501
2006    PoliticWiki (Kevin Makice) 6, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 2, 13101341
2006    Foucault@Wiki (Christian Pentzold, Sebastian Seidenglanz) 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3363426
2006    WikiTrails (Silvan Reinhold) 2, 3, 4, 3, 1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 6, 2, 110121529
2006How to use a wiki in education (Michele Notari) 11200
2006The Study on Effective Programming Learning Using Wiki Community Systems (Soo-Hwan Kim, Hee-Seop Han, Sun-Gwan Han) 1200

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Perturbation, Weblogs in education

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