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Action Centered Design

Peter Denning, Pamela Dargan
Zu finden in: Bringing Design to Software, 1996
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Peter DenningThe software landscape is a mixed field of successes and failures. Along with notably successful software packages for every task from payroll to party invitations, we find notable failures, some of them spectacular. As one measure, a 1979 US Government Accounting Office review of nine software projects for the Department of Defense showed that about 2 percent of the allocated funds were spent on software that was delivered and in use, about 25 percent were spent on software that was never delivered, and about 50 percent were spent on software that was delivered, but was never used (Neumann, 1995). This example may represent an extreme case, but everyone in the software industry knows that such problems are widespread and are of large magnitude. Software engineering---a discipline of designed invented in the 1960s to address the “software crisis”---has unwittingly created an illusion that a rigorous process of transforming requirements into systems is the key to reliable design. With this illusion comes a false sense of security that the solution to the crisis is at hand--- and that we will obtain it faster by throwing more research collars at the problem.
We believe that the shortcoming is not due to a lack of effort or intelligence among software practitioners. We believe that the problem is of a different kind -- that the standard engineering design process produces a fundamental blindness to the domains of action in which the customers of software systems live and work. The connection between measurable aspects of the software and the satisfaction of those customers is, at best, tenuous. We propose a broader interpretation of design that is based on observing the repetitive actions of people in a domain and connecting those action-processes to supportive software technologies. We call this activity action-centered design and we propose it as the basis of a discipline of software architecture.
Von Peter Denning, Pamela Dargan im Buch Bringing Design to Software (1996) im Text Action Centered Design

iconDieser Text erwähnt ...

KB IB clear
Christopher Alexander, Reinhard Budde, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Fernando Flores, Christiane Floyd, Reinhard Keil, Donald A. Norman, Terry Winograd, Heinz Züllighoven

KB IB clear
Softwaresoftware, Software EngineeringSoftware Engineering, Spiralmodell, Wasserfallmodellwaterfall model
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1979 local secure The Timeless Way of Building (Christopher Alexander) 3, 1, 4, 5, 4, 14, 5, 11, 7, 1, 4, 52045702
1987  local secure Understanding Computers and Cognition (Terry Winograd, Fernando Flores) 51, 13, 12, 11, 13, 22, 13, 13, 15, 8, 9, 36916837964
1992Software Development and Reality Construction Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt (Reinhard Budde, Christiane Floyd, Reinhard Keil, Heinz Züllighoven) 12, 10, 13, 14, 10, 23, 14, 7, 6, 3, 10, 1293714027
1994  local secure Things That Make Us Smart (Donald A. Norman) 9, 12, 18, 14, 9, 20, 5, 6, 6, 2, 5, 4234343317
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1989 local secure On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 8, 9, 5, 10, 5, 11, 8, 4, 7, 2, 3, 2191022007



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