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Creating Creativity

User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation
Erstpublikation in: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2000, Pages 114–138.
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Ben ShneidermanA challenge for human-computer interaction researchers and user interface designers is to construct information technologies that support creativity. This ambitious goal can be attained by building on an adequate understanding of creative processes. This article offers a four-phase framework for creativity that might assist designers in providing effective tools for users:
  1. Collect: learn from previous works stored in libraries, the Web, etc.;
  2. Relate: consult with peers and mentors at early, middle, and late stages;
  3. Create: explore, compose, evaluate possible solutions; and
  4. Donate: disseminate the results and contribute to the libraries.
Within this integrated framework, this article proposes eight activities that require human-computer interaction research and advanced user interface design. A scenario about an architect illustrates the process of creative work within such an environment.
Von Ben Shneiderman im Text Creating Creativity (2000)
Matthias DreierBen Shneiderman is a professor of Computer Science at the University of Maryland and Founding Director of the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory. He is a Fellow of the ACM and received the ACM CHI Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001. In this publication he presents GENEX, a framework for modelling a creative process.
The GENEX (generator of excellence) framework consists of four phases: Collect- learn from previous work, Relate - consult with peers and mentors, Create - compose and evaluate possible solutions, and Donate - disseminate the results. Various software tools exist to support each phase of the framework, such as digital libraries to collect information, newsgroups to communicate with peers, simulations and what-if-tools to explore possible solutions, and websites to publish new results. However, these tools do not integrate well. They ought to be able to record and replay previous steps, to e-mail the current state to colleagues, and to compare the current solution with those stored in a library. It may sound ambitious, but Shneiderman argues that the way word processors evolved from typewriting tools to modern publishing applications offering spell and grammar checking, database, graphic and spreadsheet features, a similar development might just as well come true for integrated design tools. Another encouraging example is the way the World Wide Web reduced the effort to retrieve information and to communicate with people all over the world. Shneiderman also shows the limitations of computer support for creativity. Permanent access to previous works might suppress more exotic ideas. Simulations might restrict imagination to what is possible with the functionality of these tools.
This article is a call for a better integration of various creative activities, but also a call for a more liberal sharing of creative ideas. Promising approaches exists, supportive software tools exist, too, but there is still a lack of organisational and technological infrastructure that supports collaborative creative processes. Shneiderman provides an elaborate model of the creative process and illustrates how software tools might facilitate this process. The sole weakness of this publication is the rather mechanical perspective on creativity. The psychological research on creativity is clearly beyond the scope of this article.
Quelle: [www.elearning-reviews.org]
Von Matthias Dreier, erfasst im Biblionetz am 04.02.2005

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Personen
KB IB clear
Edward de Bono, Vannevar Bush, Steven Johnson, Thomas S. Kuhn, G. Polya, Ben Shneiderman

Aussagen
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Mappingtechniken haben eine Anregungsfunktion

Begriffe
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Axon Idea Processor, Computercomputer, Concept MapConcept Map, Designdesign, Gestaltpsychologie, Informationinformation, Innovationinnovation, Kreativitätcreativity, Mappingverfahren, Mind MapMind Map, Mind Mapping Softwaremind mapping software, semantic netsemantic net, Technologietechnology, TheBrainTheBrain, Visualisierungvisualization
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
 MindManager9, 9, 8, 3, 7, 6, 8, 5, 9, 9, 7, 14115144912
1945 local secure Schule des Denkens (G. Polya) 3, 1, 6, 2, 4, 5, 3, 1, 6, 5, 10, 11173111226
1962  Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen (Thomas S. Kuhn) 5, 3, 11, 9, 15, 11, 11, 9, 28, 10, 20, 1111517119667
1970 local secure Lateral Thinking (Edward de Bono) 1, 1, 4, 2, 3, 4, 4, 3, 7, 2, 3, 6946222
1987Designing the user interface (Ben Shneiderman) 3, 3, 1, 6, 5, 6, 4, 8, 11, 3, 12, 634261387
1997  Interface Culture (Steven Johnson) 6, 8, 15, 15, 25, 26, 28, 20, 18, 19, 21, 102181104374
2001Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 21, 12, 21, 14, 24, 38, 28, 14, 12, 11, 19, 1312258132566
2003  local secure The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 11, 7, 23, 18, 24, 51, 34, 22, 19, 12, 21, 1419399144666
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1945 local secure web As We May Think (Vannevar Bush) 12, 9, 10, 9, 11, 16, 11, 9, 11, 9, 17, 108913102214
1998 local secure web Codex, Memex, Genex (Ben Shneiderman) 3, 1, 7, 6, 6, 6, 4, 2, 8, 3, 5, 6386673

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Concept Mapping Software

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