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Modality matters

Understanding the Effects of Programming Language Representation in High School Computer Science Classrooms
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Computation is changing our world. From how we work, to how we communicate and how we relax - few parts of our world have been left unaffected by computation and the technologies that it enables. The field of computer science and the ideas of the discipline are driving these changes, yet relatively little of it is present in contemporary K-12 education. Numerous local and national initiatives are underway to bring the powerful ideas of computing into classrooms around the world. An increasingly popular strategy being employed in this effort is the use of graphical, blocks-based programming environments like Scratch, Snap! and Alice. While these environments have been found to be effective at broadening participation with younger learners, open questions remain about their suitability in high school contexts. This dissertation uses a quasi-experimental, mixed methods design to understand the effects of blocks-based, text-based, and hybrid blocks-text programming environments in high school classrooms. Three custom-designed programming environments were created and used to understand how modality (blocks-based, text-based, and hybrid blocks/text) affects learners’ emerging understandings of core computer science concepts and their attitudes towards and perceptions of the discipline. Additionally, the study investigates if and how the different introductory programming modalities support learners’ transitions to more conventional textbased professional programming languages.
Findings from the study reveal that the modality matters. Differences were found with respect to students’ conceptualizations of programming constructs as well as student performance on content assessments and attitudinal surveys. The data show students in the Blocks condition scoring higher on content evaluations after a five-week curriculum and reporting higher levels of confidence, enjoyment, and interest in the field relative to students using an isomorphic text-based interface. However, these findings did not translate to greater success or better self-reported experiences upon transitioning to a professional, text-based programming language. After ten weeks of learning the Java programming language, students in the text condition showed comparable scores on content assessments and positive trends on attitudinal questions, whereas their blocks-based peers showed decreasingly levels of engagement and enjoyment. This study also demonstrates the potential of hybrid environments that blend features of blocks-based and text-based interfaces for providing the scaffolds and engagement of blocks-based tools with the perceived power and authenticity of text-based introductory environments. Collectively this work contributes to our understanding of the relationship between computational representations and learning programming, and can be used to inform the tools that will train the next generation of computationally literature citizens.
Von David Weintrop in der Dissertation Modality matters (2016)

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Personen
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Harold Abelson, Matthew Ahrens, Eric E. Allen, Amjad AlTadmri, Michal Armoni, Tiffany Barnes, Tim Bell, Mordechai Ben-Ari, M. Bloom, Karen Brennan, P. Brna, Neil C. C. Brown, Robert Bruce Findler, Amy Bruckman, Corinne Büching, Quinn Burke, Shannon Campe, Ebru Celikel Cankaya, Robert Cartwright, Robbin N. Chapman, Gail Chapman, Damon Chizuru Kawamoto, Albert Corbett, Allen Cypher, Jill Denner, Paul Denny, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Caitlin Duncan, Evelyn Eastmond, Stacey Ecott, Barbara J. Ericson, Barry S. Fagin, Matthias Felleisen, W. Feurzeig, Deborah A. Fields, Allan Fisher, Matthew Flatt, Ryan Garlick, Michael Giang, Adele Goldberg, Joanna Goode, R. Grant, T.R.G. Green, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Jacob Hendrickx, Poul Henriksen, Leanne M. Hirshfield, Yukio Idosaka, Matthew C. Jadud, Yasmin B. Kafai, Ken Kahn, Susumu Kanemune, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Kenneth R. Koedinger, Michael Kölling, Shriram Krishnamurthi, Yasushi Kuno, Henry H. Leitner, Colleen M. Lewis, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, David J. Malan, John Maloney, John H. Maloney, Jane Margolis, Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Patrick Mendelsohn, Laurence D. Merkle, Bertrand Meyer 0001, Faye Miller, Amon Millner, Eckart Modrow, Jens Mönig, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Brad Myers, Mitaro Namiki, Marie-Hélène Nienaltowski, Tomohiro Nishida, Donald A. Norman, Takashi Ohata, Seymour Papert, Andrew Patterson, Richard E. Pattis, Randy Pausch, Roy Pea, Michela Pedroni, Kylie A. Peppler, Kris Powers, Thomas W. Price, Bruce Quig, Mitchel Resnick, Anthony Robins, Eric Rosenbaum, John Rosenberg, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree, Natalie Rusk, Sanshiro Sakai, R. Benjamin Shapiro, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, David Canfield Smith, Cynthia Solomon, Juha Sorva, Jim Spohrer, Brian Stoler, Kerstin Strecker, Manabu Sugiura, Steve Tanimoto, Ewan D. Tempero, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Julia Walter-Herrmann, David Weintrop, Linda L. Werner, Uri Wilensky, Jeannette M. Wing, Stephen Wolfram

Aussagen
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Blockbasierte Sprachen erleichtern den Einstieg ins Programmierenblock programming interfaces improve novice programming performance
Blockbasierte Sprachen verhindern Syntaxfehler

Begriffe
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Alice.org, blockbasierte Programmiersprachenvisual programming language, Informatikcomputer science, Informatik-Didaktikdidactics of computer science, Informatik-Unterricht (Fachinformatik)Computer Science Education, Informatikunterricht in der Schule, Programmierenprogramming, Programmiersprachenprogramming languages, Scratch
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1962Thought and Language (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 45200
1969 local secure web Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics (W. Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, M. Bloom, R. Grant, Cynthia Solomon) 4, 2, 2, 4, 4, 1, 5, 5, 4, 3, 6, 36113175
1980  The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 3, 3, 4, 2, 5, 4, 7, 8, 5, 3, 7, 318253279
1981Karel the Robot (Richard E. Pattis) 4, 4, 4, 2, 5, 3, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7, 82138466
1982 local secure web Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 11, 14, 21, 30, 25, 19, 30, 35, 39, 35, 23, 2223145225292
1986 local secure Turtle geometry (Harold Abelson, Andrea DiSessa) 1, 9, 2, 5, 5, 5, 7, 19, 1, 3, 5, 61366185
1988  local secure The Design of Everyday Things (Donald A. Norman) 3, 7, 2, 3, 10, 8, 19, 19, 19, 17, 15, 126720125228
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 4, 5, 5, 2, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21, 9, 16, 1010340101197
1990Psychology of Programming (J.-M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurçay, D.J. Gilmore) 1, 2, 3, 1, 5, 1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 8, 48394300
1993  local secure Revolution des Lernens (Seymour Papert) 15, 19, 19, 12, 26, 16, 25, 46, 29, 29, 24, 2878176288061
1994 local secure web MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1994  local secure Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams (Mitchel Resnick) 5, 6, 11, 11, 9, 7, 11, 17, 8, 8, 14, 161771162303
1994  local secure Things That Make Us Smart (Donald A. Norman) 1, 2, 1, 2, 5, 3, 10, 9, 12, 18, 14, 9234393269
1997SIGCSE 1997 (Curt M. White, Carl Erickson, Bruce J. Klein, James E. Miller) 11, 2, 1, 3, 3, 3, 6, 5, 7, 4, 5, 742214761
2001Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 20, 9, 21, 12, 21, 14, 24, 38, 28, 14, 12, 1112157112534
2001Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 3, 4, 5, 2, 6, 1, 3, 6, 3, 4, 7, 11235111231
2002  local secure web Unlocking the Clubhouse (Jane Margolis, Allan Fisher) 2, 1, 1, 3, 6, 4, 7, 13, 6, 4, 7, 436234217
2002SIGCSE 2002 (Judith L. Gersting, Henry MacKay Walker, Scott Grissom) 15, 1, 2, 1, 4, 2, 5, 4, 6, 5, 9, 667285664
2002  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 6, 6, 14, 19, 7, 4, 8, 8, 7, 10, 4, 1125220114718
2003Computer Science Education 2/20032, 2, 8, 12, 8, 1, 7, 3, 5, 3, 8, 21782165
2003Computer Science Education 4/20031, 2, 1, 1, 5, 1, 6, 6, 4, 3, 6, 2492176
2003  local secure The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 7, 11, 11, 7, 23, 18, 24, 51, 34, 22, 19, 1218994124631
2003SIGCSE 2003 (Scott Grissom, Deborah Knox, Daniel T. Joyce, Wanda Dann) 4, 1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 12, 15, 8, 4, 9, 1072241086
2004Computer Science Education 1/20042, 1, 5, 9, 8, 6, 7, 17, 2, 4, 6, 3143164
2004Computer Science Education Research (Sally Fincher, Marian Petre) 9, 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 8, 6, 6, 4, 6, 315413186
2005Computer Science Education 1/20051, 1, 1, 2, 4, 1, 6, 4, 4, 6, 6, 3673136
2006 local secure The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (R. Keith Sawyer) 7, 3, 12, 20, 11, 11, 18, 24, 20, 9, 16, 11566411883
2007SIGCSE 2007 (Ingrid Russell, Susan M. Haller, J. D. Dougherty, Susan H. Rodger) 1133700
2008SIGCSE 2008 (J. D. Dougherty, Susan H. Rodger, Sue Fitzgerald, Mark Guzdial) 2, 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 17, 32, 13, 9, 13, 393423125
2009The Computer Clubhouse (Yasmin B. Kafai, Kylie A. Peppler, Robbin N. Chapman) 3, 6, 2, 1, 7, 5, 7, 13, 4, 5, 7, 5665243
2009ICER 2009 (Michael J. Clancy, Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister) 5, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 5, 5, 9, 3, 4, 415314119
2009SIGCSE 2009 (Sue Fitzgerald, Mark Guzdial, Gary Lewandowski, Steven A. Wolfman) 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 17, 5, 4, 10, 312321387
2009SIGCSE 2009 (Gary Lewandowski, Steven A. Wolfman, Thomas J. Cortina, Ellen Lowenfeld Walker) 2, 1, 1, 2, 10, 10, 14, 23, 16, 6, 11, 7783487128
2010ITiCSE 2010 (Reyyan Ayfer, John Impagliazzo, Cary Laxer) 18, 18, 19, 18, 13, 22, 35, 38, 23, 19, 23, 1319236131298
2011ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 13, 13, 17, 18, 21, 21, 28, 27, 17, 14, 18, 1148317112405
2011 local secure LOG IN 168/20115, 7, 7, 3, 10, 11, 16, 24, 9, 8, 14, 94449508
2012 local secure web Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education (Juha Sorva) 3, 2, 3, 2, 8, 6, 10, 6, 7, 12, 11, 810988213
2012SIGCSE 2012 (Laurie A. Smith King, David R. Musicant, Tracy Camp, Paul T. Tymann) 4, 1, 7, 11, 9, 11, 15, 28, 13, 4, 11, 8155548161
2013Computer Science Education 3/20136, 4, 5, 2, 6, 5, 10, 12, 12, 3, 5, 611426258
2013  local secure web Computer Science Concepts in Scratch (Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 4, 7, 3, 3, 11, 6, 11, 15, 12, 6, 6, 88148217
2013  FabLab (Julia Walter-Herrmann, Corinne Büching) 6, 6, 5, 4, 8, 7, 9, 11, 10, 7, 12, 119611294
2013SIGCSE 2013 (Tracy Camp, Paul T. Tymann, J. D. Dougherty, Kris Nagel) 4, 1, 2, 5, 9, 12, 17, 28, 17, 9, 10, 81595908142
2014  local secure Connected Code (Yasmin B. Kafai, Quinn Burke) 6, 4, 14, 18, 18, 14, 18, 19, 19, 19, 11, 13129513663
2014SIGCSE 2014 (J. D. Dougherty, Kris Nagel, Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt) 5, 3, 5, 10, 10, 10, 15, 28, 8, 7, 12, 7175817216
2014WiPSCE 2014 (Carsten Schulte, Michael E. Caspersen, Judith Gal-Ezer) 4, 9, 4, 5, 15, 5, 11, 23, 7, 9, 11, 7302317456
2015SIGCSE 2015 (Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt, Carl Alphonce, Jodi Tims) 18, 16, 13, 16, 17, 6, 6, 7, 4, 1, 1, 5239023198
2015Proceedings of the Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, WiPSCE 2015, London, United Kingdom, November 9-11, 2015 (Judith Gal-Ezer, Sue Sentance, Jan Vahrenhold) 6, 12, 12, 14, 16, 11, 13, 25, 14, 10, 7, 9192389277
2015ICER 2015 (Brian Dorn, Judy Sheard, Quintin I. Cutts) 3, 1, 3, 2, 8, 9, 13, 22, 8, 7, 6, 6282056247
2015 local secure web Learner-Centered Design of Computing Education (Mark Guzdial) 3, 1, 4, 1, 7, 12, 18, 35, 31, 8, 9, 491034387
2016 local secure Introduction to Computing and Programming in Python (Mark Guzdial, Barbara J. Ericson) 9, 2, 1, 3, 5, 1, 7, 11, 2, 2, 8, 41284240
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1972 local secure web Teaching Children To Be Mathematicians Versus Teaching About Mathematics (Seymour Papert) 3, 6, 1, 4, 2, 4, 2, 3, 4, 11, 8, 3683149
1977 local secure Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 1, 2, 6, 3, 7, 2, 2, 16, 8, 7, 10, 4311541682
1986 local secure web Language‐Independent Conceptual «Bugs» in Novice Programming (Roy Pea) 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 5, 3415376
1989 local secure On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 3, 4, 3, 4, 5, 3, 6, 8, 9, 5, 10, 5191051970
1989 local secure web Taxonomies of Visual Programming and Program Visualization (Brad Myers) 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 237271
1990 local secure web Programming Languages in Education (Patrick Mendelsohn, T.R.G. Green, P. Brna) 1, 2, 1, 2, 4, 3, 4, 2, 7, 4, 7, 1021210163
1994 local secure web KidSim (David Canfield Smith, Allen Cypher, Jim Spohrer) 6, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 5, 31233254
1995 local secure web ToonTalk (Ken Kahn) 7600
1997 local secure web Undergraduate women in computer science (Allan Fisher, Jane Margolis, Faye Miller) 2500
2002 local secure web DrJava (Eric E. Allen, Robert Cartwright, Brian Stoler) 2400
2003 local secure web Learning and Teaching Programming (Anthony Robins, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree) 14500
2003 local secure web The BlueJ System and its Pedagogy (Michael Kölling, Bruce Quig, Andrew Patterson, John Rosenberg) 3100
2003 local secure web Measuring the effectiveness of robots in teaching computer science (Barry S. Fagin, Laurence D. Merkle) 2400
2004 local secure web The TeachScheme! Project (Matthias Felleisen, Robert Bruce Findler, Matthew Flatt, Shriram Krishnamurthi) 2100
2004 local secure web Programming Environments for Novices (Mark Guzdial) 7, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 3, 5, 6, 310403156
2005 local secure web A First Look at Novice Compilation Behaviour Using BlueJ (Matthew C. Jadud) 2100
2005 local secure web Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 9, 1, 2, 1, 4, 2, 6, 6, 9, 1, 9, 133171423
2006Cognitive Tutors (Kenneth R. Koedinger, Albert Corbett) 5000
2006 local secure web Computational Thinking (Jeannette M. Wing) 4, 3, 7, 8, 16, 12, 17, 25, 12, 9, 13, 12872112757
2007 local secure web Through the looking glass (Kris Powers, Stacey Ecott, Leanne M. Hirshfield) 3400
2007 local secure web Scratch for budding computer scientists (David J. Malan, Henry H. Leitner) 3400
2008 local secure web Compiler error messages (Marie-Hélène Nienaltowski, Michela Pedroni, Bertrand Meyer 0001) 2500
2008 local secure web Programming by choice (John H. Maloney, Kylie A. Peppler, Yasmin B. Kafai, Mitchel Resnick, Natalie Rusk) 6400
2009 local secure web Flexible, reusable tools for studying novice programmers (Matthew C. Jadud, Poul Henriksen) 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 121131
2009 local secure web A CS unplugged design pattern (Tomohiro Nishida, Susumu Kanemune, Yukio Idosaka, Mitaro Namiki, Tim Bell, Yasushi Kuno) 3400
2009 local secure web Scratch: Programming for All (Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai) 5, 3, 3, 5, 8, 6, 10, 15, 14, 4, 12, 746287600
2010 local secure web How programming environment shapes perception, learning and goals (Colleen M. Lewis) 1, 5, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 3, 5, 3, 7, 41294124
2010Using alice in CS1 (Ryan Garlick, Ebru Celikel Cankaya) 4600
2011 local secure Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 1, 3, 2, 1, 10, 7, 9, 7, 7, 3, 6, 718107415
2011Understanding the syntax barrier for novices (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Ewan D. Tempero, Jacob Hendrickx) 5200
2011 local secure web Wozu JAVA? (Eckart Modrow, Jens Mönig, Kerstin Strecker) 6, 7, 12, 23, 10, 8, 15, 24, 21, 13, 9, 53245665
2012 local secure web The fairy performance assessment (Linda L. Werner, Jill Denner, Shannon Campe, Damon Chizuru Kawamoto) 2600
2013 local secure web Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 10, 6, 2, 2, 6, 7, 10, 17, 12, 4, 9, 410354247
2013Robobuilder (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 2400
2014 local secure From Tools to Communities (Yasmin B. Kafai, Quinn Burke) 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 9, 3, 5, 3213357
2014 local secure web Should your 8-year-old learn coding? (Caitlin Duncan, Tim Bell, Steve Tanimoto) 1, 2, 2, 1, 7, 7, 8, 9, 16, 5, 8, 610366248
2014 local secure web Programming in the wild (Deborah A. Fields, Michael Giang, Yasmin B. Kafai) 4, 2, 5, 3, 9, 7, 8, 6, 4, 4, 10, 46184318
2014Exploring computer science (Gail Chapman, Joanna Goode) 3300
2015 local secure web To Block or not to Block, That is the Question (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 3, 10, 1, 2, 6, 11, 10, 14, 9, 7, 4, 512195190
2015 local secure web Comparing Textual and Block Interfaces in a Novice Programming Environment (Thomas W. Price, Tiffany Barnes) 7, 3, 1, 2, 6, 1, 6, 1, 4, 2, 4, 43154130
2015 local secure web Using Commutative Assessments to Compare Conceptual Understanding in Blocks-based and Text-based Programs (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 9, 1, 4, 1, 4, 3, 5, 12, 10, 2, 6, 28252136
2015 local secure web Frame-Based Editing (Michael Kölling, Neil C. C. Brown, Amjad AlTadmri) 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 8, 9, 5, 7, 5, 6, 83118120
2015 local secure web Language Migration in non-CS Introductory Programming through Mutual Language Translation Environment (Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Takashi Ohata, Manabu Sugiura, Sanshiro Sakai) 3400
2016 local secure web Beyond Blocks (R. Benjamin Shapiro, Matthew Ahrens) 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 3, 5, 6, 4, 22172125

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