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Scratch

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Yasmin B. KafaiMitchel ResnickScratch is a networked, media-rich programming environment designed to enhance the development of technological fluency at after-school centers in economically-disadvantaged communities.
Von John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick im Text Scratch (2004)
Scratch ist eine moderne Programmierumgebung für die Entwicklung interaktiver Spiele und anderer multimedialer Systeme. Scratch wurde in den letzten Jahren im Media Lab des MIT unter der Leitung von Mitchel Resnick entwickelt (www.scratch.org). Scratch enthält eine textuelle Programmiersprache, aber Programmtexte werden aus vorgegebenen (visualisierten) Bausteinen zusammengesetzt. Damit gibt es keine Syntaxfehler und das Programmieren ist für Anfänger sehr viel „schmerzfreier“. Schnelle Modellierungszyklen des Veränderns und Testens werden unterstützt.
Von Michael Weigend im Buch Interesse wecken und Grundkenntnisse vermitteln (2008) im Text Informatik und Verkehr
Scratch (http://scratch.mit.edu), created by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at the MIT Media Laboratory, is a media-rich system for novice programmers. For an overview of Scratch, see Resnick et al. (2009). Programs in Scratch are composed of scripts which control sprites displayed on a stage. Scripts are created by dragging and dropping blocks that represent program components, such as expressions, conditions, statements, and variables. A sprite may have multiple scripts and they are all executed concurrently. The environment eliminates syntax errors and gives immediate visual feedback through the behavior of the sprites. Scratch is augmented by a social computing network for sharing projects.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
Scratch has been developed at the MIT Media Lab by the Lifelong Kindergarten group directed by Mitchel Resnick. The aim focused on building a system for beginners where they could express themselves and their creativity while being introduced to informatics [11]. It is not only a programming language: it also provides an environment where a user finds several integrated tools (for drawing and recording, for example). More generally, Scratch is a system for producing stories that can have one or more characters (Sprites) acting on a Stage, with one or more Backgrounds, and sounds of different types (for example voices, music, noises). Characters behave as specified by means of code sequences, called Scripts. Here the word script is to be intended mostly as referring to roles in the theatre, or cinema.
Von G. Barbara Demo, Lawrence Williams im Konferenz-Band ISSEP 2014 im Text The Many Facets of Scratch (2014)

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Yasmin B. KafaiMitchel ResnickScratch is written in Squeak, an open-source implementation of the Smalltalk-80 language.
Von John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick im Text Scratch (2004)
Mitchel ResnickYasmin B. KafaiThree core design principles for Scratch: Make it more tinkerable, more meaningful, and more social than other programming environments.
Von Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai, Andrés Monroy-Hernández im Text Scratch: Programming for All (2009)
Despite its flashy exterior, Scratch is a sophisticated software system and it takes time to learn ist technical and pedagogical aspects.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
Yasmin B. KafaiMitchel ResnickScratch source code will be made freely available via periodic code releases to allow collaborators to augment the core system with their own custom features and extensions.
Von John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick im Text Scratch (2004)
Mitchel ResnickYasmin B. KafaiMost programming languages (and computer science courses) privilege top-down planning over bottom-up tinkering. With Scratch, we want tinkerers to feel just as comfortable as planners.
Von Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai, Andrés Monroy-Hernández im Text Scratch: Programming for All (2009)
Mitchel ResnickLearning lessons from Papert’s experiences of Logo, we’ve designed Scratch to move beyond Logo along three dimensions, making programming more tinkerable, more meaningful, and more social.
Von Mitchel Resnick im Text Reviving Papert’s Dream (2012)
Mitchel ResnickLearning lessons from Papert’s experiences of Logo, we’ve designed Scratch to move beyond Logo along three dimensions, making programming more tinkerable, more meaningful, and more social.
Von Mitchel Resnick im Text Reviving Papert’s Dream (2012)
Yasmin B. KafaiMitchel ResnickSharing and exchanging of Scratch projects and their components will be supported through a combination of standard web servers (with content viewed in a web browser) and a custom “Scratch Object Library” server.
Von John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick im Text Scratch (2004)
Die Einschränkungen von Scratch sind im den Bereichen Modularisierung und Datenstrukturen offensichtlich, obwohl lokale und globale Operationen und Variable sowie Zeichenketten und lineare Listen zur Verfügung stehen.
Von Eckart Modrow im Konferenz-Band Informatik in Bildung und Beruf im Text Visuelle Programmierung (2011)
Mitchel ResnickYasmin B. KafaiProbably the biggest challenges for Scratch are not technological but cultural and educational.10 Scratch has been a success among early adopters, but we need to provide better educational support for it to spread more broadly.
Von Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai, Andrés Monroy-Hernández im Text Scratch: Programming for All (2009)
Yasmin B. KafaiMitchel ResnickMaking animations (with tools such as Macromedia Flash) is an increasingly popular activity at Clubhouses. With Scratch, Clubhouse members will be able to create an animation, upload it to a Scratch library server, and then track how it is used or modified by others.
Von John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick im Text Scratch (2004)
Overall, Scratch has proved to be a viable platform for teaching CS, but we do not believe that effective learning will be achieved by itself withoutclose and effective mentoring. Left to themselves, many students will only use Scratch as a tool for creating media and learn very little.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
Mitchel ResnickYasmin B. KafaiThere needs to be a shift in how people think about programming, and about computers in general. We need to expand the notion of "digital fluency" to include designing and creating, not just browsing and interacting. Only then will initiatives like Scratch have a chance to live up to their full potential.
Von Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai, Andrés Monroy-Hernández im Text Scratch: Programming for All (2009)
Mitchel ResnickYasmin B. KafaiWe wanted to develop an approach to programming that would appeal to people who hadn't previously imagined themselves as programmers. We wanted to make it easy for everyone, of all ages, backgrounds, and interests, to program their own interactive stories, games, animations, and simulations, and share their creations with one another.
Von Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai, Andrés Monroy-Hernández im Text Scratch: Programming for All (2009)
When a tool like Scratch is used in a school setting, it is important that high-quality learning materials be available, so that teachers can follow a specific syllabus and not be required to develop every lesson by themselves. This is especially important for middle-school teachers who tend to have a less-advanced academic background in the subject matter.
Von Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari in der Zeitschrift Computer Science Education 3/2013 im Text Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (2013)
Mitchel ResnickProbably the biggest challenges for Scratch - and for realizing for Papert’s dream - are not technological but cultural and educational. There needs to be a shift in how people think about programming, and how they think about computers in general.We need to expand the conception of digital fluency to include designing and creating, not just browsing and interacting.
Von Mitchel Resnick im Text Reviving Papert’s Dream (2012)
Scratch ist genau das richtige Werkzeug fur den Einsatz in der Algorithmik in der 7. Jahrgangsstufe und vermittelt grundlegende Ideen zu weiteren ganz wichtigen Konzepten der Informatik. Zudem eröffnet es im Gegensatz zur eintönigen Welt vom Robot Karol die Möglichkeit zu immer wieder neuen Aufgabenstellungen mit neuen Akteuren. Damit lässt sich Langeweile aufgrund ähnlicher Aufgabenstellungen vermeiden.
Von Susanne Hoika in der Seminararbeit Entwicklung und Bewertung einer Unterrichtssequenz zum Thema Algorithmen im Informatikunterricht der 7. Jahrgangsstufe mit Hilfe der Programmierumgebung Scratch (2009)
Mitchel ResnickYasmin B. KafaiAs Scratchers program and share interactive projects, they learn important mathematical and computational concepts, as well as how to think creatively, reason systematically, and work collaboratively: all essential skills for the 21st century. Indeed, our primary goal is not to prepare people for careers as professional programmers but to nurture a new generation of creative, systematic thinkers comfortable using programming to express their ideas.
Von Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai, Andrés Monroy-Hernández im Text Scratch: Programming for All (2009)
Yasmin B. KafaiThe idea was to develop a programming language that builds on the media practices that already were favored by youth in their leisure time. This language would allow participants to make graphics, animations, and games. It would not be confined to a particular purpose, would provide a low entry threshold for beginners with no prior experience, and would be able to be scaled up to more complex projects. Scratch (ist name a play on populär DJ practices of making and remixing music) moved away from the focus on mathematics and science that traditionally was associated with programming.
Von Yasmin B. Kafai, Quinn Burke im Buch Connected Code (2014) im Text The Comeback of Coding
Der Erfolg von Scratch im Ausbildungssystem ist eigentlich verblüffend: ein für Kindergarten und Grundschule konzipiertes und designtes System wird nicht nur in den Sekundarstufen, sondern sogar in der universitären Grundausbildung erfolgreich eingesetzt – und das nicht in irgendwelchen Klitschen, sondern am MIT oder in Berkeley. Die Not muss also groß sein! Ein „Kindergartensystem“ sollte eigentlich für die universitäre Ausbildung ungeeignet sein. Wird es trotzdem benutzt, dann hält ein Teil der Ausbilder die traditionellen Ausbildungswerkzeuge offensichtlich für noch ungeeigneter.
Von Eckart Modrow im Konferenz-Band Informatik in Bildung und Beruf im Text Visuelle Programmierung (2011)
Yasmin B. KafaiMitchel ResnickA future version of Scratch may even allow youth to download animations to handheld devices and exchange them via IR or Bluetooth. Youth can modify animations that they receive (since all Scratch “program blocks” are accessible), or they could even program an object to behave differently depending on the age, gender, or location of the person receiving it. The Scratch server will automatically keep track of all transactions, so youth can view tree-like graphs representing the spread of their animations, with indicators of how and where the animations have been modified. Through these activities, we hope that an ecosystem of Scratch creations will develop, with Clubhouse youth trading and modifying one another’s creations.
Von John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick im Text Scratch (2004)
Why Scratch?
Almost everyone knows how to use a computer. We use them for surfing the internet (email, downloading music and videos, chatting, shopping), for writing documents and for playing games. Aren’t you curious to learn how these amazing applications are built? Well, they are built as computer programs, which are written in programming languages that a computer can understand and run. Unfortunately, programs like internet browsers and word processors are very complex - they can have millions of instructions in a programming language - and the languages themselves were designed for professional programmers and are difficult to learn. Here is where Scratch comes to our rescue. Scratch is easy to learn and you can build programs for a computer (or, as we say, to program the computer) immediately when you start to work with Scratch. Furthermore, Scratch supports the use of graphics, animation and sound without requiring that you understand the technical details.
Don’t let the colorful presentation of Scratch fool you! It is not a computer game. Scratch is a real software development environment, and experience with Scratch will provide you a glimpse of what it is like to program a computer professionally. It is lots of fun working with Scratch, and the programs you develop can be exciting games or interesting simulations, but during the process of creating these programs you will face the same challenges faced by a professional programmer: What is the computer capable of doing? How can our wishes and needs be translated into instructions that the computer can understand and run? How are errors diagnosed and corrected? We are certain that studying Scratch in depth will be a fascinating experience.
Von Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari im Buch Computer Science Concepts in Scratch (2013)

iconVerwandte Objeke

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Verwandte Begriffe
(Cozitation)
Programmierenprogramming, blockbasierte Programmiersprachenvisual programming language, Snap! (Programmiersprache), Alice.org, Programmieren für KinderProgramming for kids

iconRelevante Personen

iconHäufig erwähnende Personen

iconHäufig co-zitierte Personen

Brian Silverman Brian
Silverman
Yasmin B. Kafai Yasmin B.
Kafai
Natalie Rusk Natalie
Rusk
John Maloney John
Maloney
Mitchel Resnick Mitchel
Resnick
Andrés Monroy-Hernández Andrés
Monroy-Hernández
Eric Rosenbaum Eric
Rosenbaum
Jay Silver Jay
Silver
Evelyn Eastmond Evelyn
Eastmond
Amon Millner Amon
Millner
Karen Brennan Karen
Brennan
Caitlin Kelleher Caitlin
Kelleher
Leo Burd Leo
Burd
Randy Pausch Randy
Pausch
Orni Meerbaum-Salant Orni
Meerbaum-Salant
Michal Armoni Michal
Armoni
Mordechai Ben-Ari Mordechai
Ben-Ari
Seymour Papert Seymour
Papert
Ebru Celikel Cankaya Ebru Celikel
Cankaya
Ryan Garlick Ryan
Garlick
Jeannette M. Wing Jeannette M.
Wing

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Scratch - ein umstrittener Leuchtturm der Gegenwart
Wer hätte sich nicht schon detaillierter Gedanken zum Thema "Scratch" gemacht! Eine nüchterne Beschreibung kann nicht schaden.
Zum ersten Mal besprochen wurde der Begriff im Jahr 2008. Das Thema ist somit noch jung. Allgemein gilt Yasmin B. Kafai als gefragter Spezialist für dieses Thema. Mitchel Resnick wird aber ebenfalls oft erwähnt.
Unumgänglich ist ein Blick auf die Definitionsvielfalt. Die älteste einigermassen bekannte Erklärung des Begriffs von John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick (2004) lautet: "Scratch is a networked, media-rich programming environment designed to enhance the development of technological fluency at after-school centers in economically-disadvantaged communities."Vergleichbar gelagert die Erklärung von Michael Weigend (2008) : "Scratch ist eine moderne Programmierumgebung für die Entwicklung interaktiver Spiele und anderer multimedialer Systeme. Scratch wurde in den letzten Jahren im Media Lab des MIT unter der Leitung von Mitchel Resnick entwickelt (www.scratch.org). Scratch enthält eine textuelle Programmiersprache, aber Programmtexte werden aus vorgegebenen (visualisierten) Bausteinen zusammengesetzt. Damit gibt es keine Syntaxfehler und das Programmieren ist für Anfänger sehr viel „schmerzfreier“. Schnelle Modellierungszyklen des Veränderns und Testens werden unterstützt.". Unübersehbar sind hier verbindende und trennende Aspekte. ...

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Auf dem WWW Scratch!: Homepage of Scratch @MIT ( WWW: Link OK 2017-10-28)

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