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Tracing the Dynabook

A Study of Technocultural Transformations
John W. Maxwell , local secure web 
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The origins of the personal computer are found in an educational vision. Desktop computing and multimedia were not first conceived as tools for office workers or media professionals— they were prototyped as “personal dynamic media” for children. Alan Kay, then at Xerox’ Palo Alto Research Center, saw in the emerging digital world the possibility of a communications revolution and argued that this revolution should be in the hands of children. Focusing on the development of the “Dynabook,” Kay’s research group established a wide-ranging conception of personal and educational computing, based on the ideal of a new systems literacy, of which computing is an integral part.
Kay’s research led to two dominant computing paradigms: the graphical user interface for personal computers, and object-oriented programming. By contrast, Kay’s educational vision has been largely forgotten, overwhelmed by the sheer volume of discourse on e-learning and the Web. However, an historical analysis of Kay’s educational project and its many contributions reveals a conception of educational computing that is in many ways more compelling than anything we have today, as it is based on a solid foundation of educational theory, one that substantially anticipates and addresses some of the biggest civil/political issues of our time, those of the openness and ownership of cultural expression. The Dynabook is a candidate for what 21st-century literacy might look like in a liberal, individualist, decentralized, and democratic key.
This dissertation is a historical treatment of the Dynabook vision and its implementations in changing contexts over 35 years. It is an attempt to trace the development of a technocultural artifact: the Dynabook, itself partly an idealized vision and partly a series of actual technologies. It is thus a work of cultural history. But it is more than simply a looking back; the effectivehistory of the Dynabook, its various incarnations, and its continuing re-emergence and re-articulation mean that the relevance of this story is an ongoing question which needs to be recognized and addressed by educators, technologists, and learners today. This dissertation represents an introduction to this case.
Von John W. Maxwell in der Dissertation Tracing the Dynabook (2006)

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Personen
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Christopher Alexander, B.J. Allen-Conn, Kent Beck, Amy Bruckman, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Burd, Michel Callon, Larry Cuban, John Dewey, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Fernando Flores, Adele Goldberg, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Sara Ishikawa, Yasmin B. Kafai, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Thomas S. Kuhn, Bruno Latour, Brenda Laurel, Jean Lave, John Law, Lawrence Lessig, John Maloney, Marshall McLuhan, Nick Montfort, Walter Ong, Seymour Papert, Randy Pausch, Neil Postman, Mitchel Resnick, Kimberly M. Rose, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Murray Silverstein, Cynthia Solomon, Neal Stephenson, Sherry Turkle, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Joseph Weizenbaum, Etienne Wenger, Terry Winograd, Stephen Wolfram, Steve Woolgar

Begriffe
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Computercomputer, DynabookDynabook, E-LearningE-Learning, microworldmicroworld, Multimediamultimedia, Smalltalk, Squeak
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
Oralität und Literalität (Walter Ong) 25200
1916 local secure Demokratie und Erziehung (John Dewey) 7, 8, 3, 12, 7, 10, 16, 14, 10, 19, 12, 17386171566
1930Mind in Society (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 5, 7, 6, 10, 14, 14, 21, 10, 12, 15, 14, 2415118241822
1962Die Gutenberg-Galaxis (Marshall McLuhan) 4, 5, 2, 7, 4, 10, 7, 10, 8, 11, 14, 13451133540
1962  Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen (Thomas S. Kuhn) 10, 5, 3, 11, 9, 15, 11, 11, 9, 28, 10, 2011317209656
1966 local secure Towards a theory of instruction (Jerome S. Bruner) 1, 4, 5, 11, 6, 13, 32, 19, 14, 11, 8, 193143191677
1966 local secure Understanding Media (Marshall McLuhan) 7, 12, 15, 14, 6, 11, 12, 8, 13, 14, 18, 2211530222632
1976  Die Macht der Computer und die Ohnmacht der Vernunft (Joseph Weizenbaum) 13, 11, 10, 16, 16, 21, 26, 67, 24, 17, 22, 281131692818415
1977A Pattern Language (Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein) 2, 2, 1, 4, 5, 7, 6, 4, 6, 11, 6, 15294151268
1979 local secure Laboratory Life (Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar) 2, 2, 2, 4, 4, 10, 4, 4, 5, 8, 4, 8918256
1980  The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 3, 4, 2, 5, 4, 7, 8, 5, 3, 7, 3, 819268287
1981Advances in social theory and methodology (Karin Knorr-Cetina, A. V. Cicourel) 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 4, 2, 2, 6, 3, 2, 5635255
1982 local secure web Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 14, 21, 30, 25, 19, 30, 35, 39, 35, 23, 22, 2823345285320
1984  local secure The Second Self (Sherry Turkle) 9, 5, 3, 4, 6, 24, 12, 18, 11, 31, 28, 439175435632
1985 local secure Wir amüsieren uns zu Tode (Neil Postman) 8, 5, 8, 8, 11, 17, 19, 24, 13, 17, 10, 236655235136
1986  local secure Computer Environments for Children (Cynthia Solomon) 1, 2, 5, 5, 5, 9, 19, 4, 3, 9, 4, 1654016319
1986Teachers and Machines (Larry Cuban) 1, 2, 2, 6, 3, 7, 13, 5, 8, 4, 5, 93139872
1987Science In Action (Bruno Latour) 23000
1987  local secure Understanding Computers and Cognition (Terry Winograd, Fernando Flores) 20, 44, 20, 158, 142, 75, 51, 13, 12, 11, 13, 2269168227903
1988  local secure Studying the Novice Programmer (Elliot Soloway, Jim Spohrer) 3, 2, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 13, 3, 10, 5, 15504515209
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 5, 5, 2, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21, 9, 16, 10, 2410444241221
1990The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design (Brenda Laurel) 2, 2, 1, 5, 3, 5, 10, 4, 6, 10, 4, 101230101191
1991A Sociology of Monsters (John Law) 4, 1, 2, 2, 5, 5, 4, 3, 6, 6, 2, 817128370
1991Acts of Meaning (Jerome S. Bruner) 20000
1991Computers as Theatre (Brenda Laurel) 3, 1, 1, 3, 1, 6, 2, 4, 5, 5, 2, 2317523581
1991Situated Learning (Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger) 1, 5, 2, 9, 7, 12, 9, 4, 6, 8, 17, 171412171260
1993We Have Never Been Modern (Bruno Latour) 7000
1994 local secure web MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1996The Culture of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 15000
1999  local secure extreme Programming explained (Kent Beck) 2, 2, 3, 5, 2, 6, 4, 2, 3, 7, 6, 121815121037
1999  local secure In the Beginning... Was the Command Line (Neal Stephenson) 9, 5, 4, 12, 11, 15, 13, 9, 16, 13, 8, 13322131364
2000Squeak (Mark Guzdial) 2, 2, 1, 5, 2, 4, 3, 1, 5, 9, 1, 111142111107
2001Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 9, 21, 12, 21, 14, 24, 38, 28, 14, 12, 11, 1912258192553
2001Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 4, 5, 2, 6, 1, 3, 6, 3, 4, 7, 11, 15245151246
2001 local secure Oversold and Underused (Larry Cuban) 2, 5, 1, 6, 7, 10, 24, 19, 13, 10, 11, 18617181457
2001 local secure web The Future of Ideas (Lawrence Lessig) 2, 2, 1, 6, 3, 10, 7, 6, 3, 8, 8, 1217912645
2002  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 6, 14, 19, 7, 4, 8, 8, 7, 10, 4, 11, 1326220134731
2003  local secure The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 11, 11, 7, 23, 18, 24, 51, 34, 22, 19, 12, 2119196214652
2004Powerful Ideas in the Classroom Personenreihenfolge alphabetisch und evtl. nicht korrekt (B.J. Allen-Conn, Kimberly M. Rose) 4, 4, 4, 5, 9, 13, 17, 12, 7, 9, 5, 1135111036
2004 local secure web Free Culture (Lawrence Lessig) 2, 9, 15, 11, 5, 9, 7, 5, 4, 8, 6, 132325131793
2006  local secure ANThology (Andrea Belliger, David Krieger) 6, 6, 8, 13, 10, 14, 13, 11, 11, 12, 12, 213299211053
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1970 local secure web Teaching children thinking (Seymour Papert) 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 7, 12, 2, 8, 6, 713147936
1972 local secure web A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages (Alan Kay) 10, 15, 20, 15, 19, 16, 19, 20, 10, 12, 13, 175820171707
1977Microelectronics and the Personal Computer (Alan Kay) 6000
1977 local secure Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 2, 6, 3, 7, 2, 2, 16, 8, 7, 10, 4, 143115141696
1981 local secure web Unscrewing the big Leviathan (Michel Callon, Bruno Latour) 5, 5, 3, 6, 5, 8, 5, 8, 3, 11, 7, 9639293
1989 local secure On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 4, 3, 4, 5, 3, 6, 8, 9, 5, 10, 5, 111910111981
1990 local secure web Situating Constructionism (Seymour Papert, Idit Harel) 4, 4, 2, 5, 1, 3, 8, 13, 4, 8, 6, 14381114691
1990 local secure web Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete (Sherry Turkle, Seymour Papert) 5, 2, 3, 4, 3, 6, 12, 18, 6, 10, 8, 11302411317
1990 local secure web User Interface (Alan Kay) 4, 4, 4, 7, 7, 7, 7, 9, 7, 8, 8, 1732917376
1991 local secure Techno-economic networks and irreversibility (Michel Callon) 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 3, 5345248
1991 local secure Computers, Networks and Education (Alan Kay) 1, 5, 2, 6, 6, 5, 21, 3, 5, 6, 4, 141125141214
1992 local secure web Notes on the Theory of the Actor Network (John Law) 3, 3, 1, 5, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 6, 2, 32183240
1993Computers Meet Classroom: Classroom Wins (Larry Cuban) 5000
1998 local secure The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet! (Alan Kay) 6, 10, 13, 10, 10, 9, 8, 10, 8, 10, 8, 10234101025
2004 local secure web Scratch (John Maloney, Leo Burd, Yasmin B. Kafai, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Mitchel Resnick) 4, 9, 9, 9, 4, 8, 14, 8, 4, 11, 4, 16132016887
2005 local secure web Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 1, 2, 1, 4, 2, 6, 6, 9, 1, 9, 1, 11331711434

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