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Modality matters

Understanding the Effects of Programming Language Representation in High School Computer Science Classrooms
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Computation is changing our world. From how we work, to how we communicate and how we relax - few parts of our world have been left unaffected by computation and the technologies that it enables. The field of computer science and the ideas of the discipline are driving these changes, yet relatively little of it is present in contemporary K-12 education. Numerous local and national initiatives are underway to bring the powerful ideas of computing into classrooms around the world. An increasingly popular strategy being employed in this effort is the use of graphical, blocks-based programming environments like Scratch, Snap! and Alice. While these environments have been found to be effective at broadening participation with younger learners, open questions remain about their suitability in high school contexts. This dissertation uses a quasi-experimental, mixed methods design to understand the effects of blocks-based, text-based, and hybrid blocks-text programming environments in high school classrooms. Three custom-designed programming environments were created and used to understand how modality (blocks-based, text-based, and hybrid blocks/text) affects learners’ emerging understandings of core computer science concepts and their attitudes towards and perceptions of the discipline. Additionally, the study investigates if and how the different introductory programming modalities support learners’ transitions to more conventional textbased professional programming languages.
Findings from the study reveal that the modality matters. Differences were found with respect to students’ conceptualizations of programming constructs as well as student performance on content assessments and attitudinal surveys. The data show students in the Blocks condition scoring higher on content evaluations after a five-week curriculum and reporting higher levels of confidence, enjoyment, and interest in the field relative to students using an isomorphic text-based interface. However, these findings did not translate to greater success or better self-reported experiences upon transitioning to a professional, text-based programming language. After ten weeks of learning the Java programming language, students in the text condition showed comparable scores on content assessments and positive trends on attitudinal questions, whereas their blocks-based peers showed decreasingly levels of engagement and enjoyment. This study also demonstrates the potential of hybrid environments that blend features of blocks-based and text-based interfaces for providing the scaffolds and engagement of blocks-based tools with the perceived power and authenticity of text-based introductory environments. Collectively this work contributes to our understanding of the relationship between computational representations and learning programming, and can be used to inform the tools that will train the next generation of computationally literature citizens.
Von David Weintrop in der Dissertation Modality matters (2016)

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Personen
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Harold Abelson, Matthew Ahrens, Eric E. Allen, Amjad AlTadmri, Michal Armoni, Tiffany Barnes, Tim Bell, Mordechai Ben-Ari, M. Bloom, Karen Brennan, P. Brna, Neil C. C. Brown, Robert Bruce Findler, Amy Bruckman, Corinne Büching, Quinn Burke, Shannon Campe, Ebru Celikel Cankaya, Robert Cartwright, Robbin N. Chapman, Gail Chapman, Damon Chizuru Kawamoto, Albert Corbett, Allen Cypher, Jill Denner, Paul Denny, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Andrea DiSessa, Caitlin Duncan, Evelyn Eastmond, Stacey Ecott, Barbara J. Ericson, Barry S. Fagin, Matthias Felleisen, W. Feurzeig, Deborah A. Fields, Allan Fisher, Matthew Flatt, Ryan Garlick, Michael Giang, Adele Goldberg, Joanna Goode, R. Grant, T.R.G. Green, Mark Guzdial, Idit Harel, Jacob Hendrickx, Poul Henriksen, Leanne M. Hirshfield, Yukio Idosaka, Matthew C. Jadud, Yasmin B. Kafai, Ken Kahn, Susumu Kanemune, Alan Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Kenneth R. Koedinger, Michael Kölling, Shriram Krishnamurthi, Yasushi Kuno, Henry H. Leitner, Colleen M. Lewis, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, David J. Malan, John Maloney, John H. Maloney, Jane Margolis, Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Patrick Mendelsohn, Laurence D. Merkle, Bertrand Meyer 0001, Faye Miller, Amon Millner, Eckart Modrow, Jens Mönig, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Brad Myers, Mitaro Namiki, Marie-Hélène Nienaltowski, Tomohiro Nishida, Donald A. Norman, Takashi Ohata, Seymour Papert, Andrew Patterson, Richard E. Pattis, Randy Pausch, Roy Pea, Michela Pedroni, Kylie A. Peppler, Kris Powers, Thomas W. Price, Bruce Quig, Mitchel Resnick, Anthony Robins, Eric Rosenbaum, John Rosenberg, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree, Natalie Rusk, Sanshiro Sakai, R. Benjamin Shapiro, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, David Canfield Smith, Cynthia Solomon, Juha Sorva, Jim Spohrer, Brian Stoler, Kerstin Strecker, Manabu Sugiura, Steve Tanimoto, Ewan D. Tempero, Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky, Julia Walter-Herrmann, David Weintrop, Linda L. Werner, Uri Wilensky, Jeannette M. Wing, Stephen Wolfram

Aussagen
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Blockbasierte Sprachen erleichtern den Einstieg ins Programmierenblock programming interfaces improve novice programming performance
Blockbasierte Sprachen verhindern Syntaxfehler

Begriffe
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Alice.org, blockbasierte Programmierumgebungenvisual programming language, Informatikcomputer science, Informatik-Didaktikdidactics of computer science, Informatik-Unterricht (Fachinformatik)Computer Science Education, Informatikunterricht in der Schule, Programmierenprogramming, Programmiersprachenprogramming languages, Scratch
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1962Thought and Language (Lew Semjonowitsch Vygotsky) 45200
1969 local secure web Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics (W. Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, M. Bloom, R. Grant, Cynthia Solomon) 4, 1, 5, 5, 4, 3, 6, 3, 8, 9, 8, 96119209
1980  The Computer in the School (Robert Taylor) 5, 4, 7, 8, 5, 3, 7, 3, 8, 7, 7, 10202610311
1981Karel the Robot (Richard E. Pattis) 5, 3, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7, 8, 11, 11, 7, 42134499
1982 local secure web Mindstorms (Seymour Papert) 25, 19, 30, 35, 39, 35, 23, 22, 28, 26, 27, 2223845225395
1986 local secure Turtle geometry (Harold Abelson, Andrea DiSessa) 5, 5, 7, 19, 1, 3, 5, 6, 13, 6, 9, 81368221
1988  local secure The Design of Everyday Things (Donald A. Norman) 10, 8, 19, 19, 19, 17, 15, 12, 18, 11, 10, 106920105277
1990Constructionism (Idit Harel, Seymour Papert) 6, 7, 14, 18, 21, 9, 16, 10, 24, 11, 16, 1610144161264
1990Psychology of Programming (J.-M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurçay, D.J. Gilmore) 5, 1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 8, 4, 20, 8, 7, 98399344
1993  local secure Revolution des Lernens (Seymour Papert) 26, 16, 25, 46, 29, 29, 24, 28, 26, 45, 26, 2180176218179
1994 local secure web MOOSE Crossing (Amy Bruckman) 112600
1994  local secure Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams (Mitchel Resnick) 9, 7, 11, 17, 8, 8, 14, 16, 17, 9, 14, 161871162359
1994  local secure Things That Make Us Smart (Donald A. Norman) 5, 3, 10, 9, 12, 18, 14, 9, 20, 5, 6, 6234363306
1997SIGCSE 1997 (Curt M. White, Carl Erickson, Bruce J. Klein, James E. Miller) 3, 3, 6, 5, 7, 4, 5, 7, 17, 9, 10, 5422155102
2001Multimedia (Randall Packer, Ken Jordan) 21, 14, 24, 38, 28, 14, 12, 11, 19, 13, 22, 2512563252613
2001Changing Minds (Andrea DiSessa) 6, 1, 3, 6, 3, 4, 7, 11, 15, 9, 12, 824581275
2002  local secure web Unlocking the Clubhouse (Jane Margolis, Allan Fisher) 6, 4, 7, 13, 6, 4, 7, 4, 14, 10, 8, 11402411260
2002SIGCSE 2002 (Judith L. Gersting, Henry MacKay Walker, Scott Grissom) 4, 2, 5, 4, 6, 5, 9, 6, 14, 7, 9, 9682919103
2002  A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram) 7, 4, 8, 8, 7, 10, 4, 11, 13, 6, 11, 1227220124760
2003Computer Science Education 2/20038, 1, 7, 3, 5, 3, 8, 2, 5, 11, 9, 91899199
2003Computer Science Education 4/20035, 1, 6, 6, 4, 3, 6, 2, 8, 6, 15, 144914219
2003  local secure The New Media Reader (Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Nick Montfort) 23, 18, 24, 51, 34, 22, 19, 12, 21, 14, 16, 25197105254707
2003SIGCSE 2003 (Scott Grissom, Deborah Knox, Daniel T. Joyce, Wanda Dann) 3, 1, 12, 15, 8, 4, 9, 10, 13, 7, 11, 682266123
2004Computer Science Education 1/20048, 6, 7, 17, 2, 4, 6, 3, 6, 1, 5, 5145181
2004Computer Science Education Research (Sally Fincher, Marian Petre) 3, 2, 8, 6, 6, 4, 6, 3, 16, 3, 11, 715417223
2005Computer Science Education 1/20054, 1, 6, 4, 4, 6, 6, 3, 8, 3, 8, 9679164
2006 local secure The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (R. Keith Sawyer) 11, 11, 18, 24, 20, 9, 16, 11, 18, 10, 14, 12596812937
2007SIGCSE 2007 (Ingrid Russell, Susan M. Haller, J. D. Dougherty, Susan H. Rodger) 1334300
2008SIGCSE 2008 (J. D. Dougherty, Susan H. Rodger, Sue Fitzgerald, Mark Guzdial) 7, 11, 17, 32, 13, 9, 13, 3, 13, 9, 5, 101034510162
2009The Computer Clubhouse (Yasmin B. Kafai, Kylie A. Peppler, Robbin N. Chapman) 7, 5, 7, 13, 4, 5, 7, 5, 13, 11, 11, 136613291
2009ICER 2009 (Michael J. Clancy, Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister) 3, 2, 5, 5, 9, 3, 4, 4, 10, 8, 10, 715337154
2009SIGCSE 2009 (Sue Fitzgerald, Mark Guzdial, Gary Lewandowski, Steven A. Wolfman) 4, 5, 9, 17, 5, 4, 10, 3, 12, 13, 6, 9133269127
2009SIGCSE 2009 (Gary Lewandowski, Steven A. Wolfman, Thomas J. Cortina, Ellen Lowenfeld Walker) 10, 10, 14, 23, 16, 6, 11, 7, 12, 9, 8, 127934912169
2010ITiCSE 2010 (Reyyan Ayfer, John Impagliazzo, Cary Laxer) 13, 22, 35, 38, 23, 19, 23, 13, 25, 18, 26, 1819237181385
2011ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 21, 21, 28, 27, 17, 14, 18, 11, 23, 17, 24, 2351325232492
2011 local secure LOG IN 168/201110, 11, 16, 24, 9, 8, 14, 9, 11, 15, 5, 54445544
2012 local secure web Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education (Juha Sorva) 8, 6, 10, 6, 7, 12, 11, 8, 18, 15, 12, 13109913271
2012SIGCSE 2012 (Laurie A. Smith King, David R. Musicant, Tracy Camp, Paul T. Tymann) 9, 11, 15, 28, 13, 4, 11, 8, 13, 11, 7, 121555412204
2013Computer Science Education 3/20136, 5, 10, 12, 12, 3, 5, 6, 15, 5, 10, 512435293
2013  local secure web Computer Science Concepts in Scratch (Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 11, 6, 11, 15, 12, 6, 6, 8, 7, 11, 13, 1081410258
2013  FabLab (Julia Walter-Herrmann, Corinne Büching) 8, 7, 9, 11, 10, 7, 12, 11, 16, 17, 16, 1411614357
2013SIGCSE 2013 (Tracy Camp, Paul T. Tymann, J. D. Dougherty, Kris Nagel) 9, 12, 17, 28, 17, 9, 10, 8, 20, 9, 14, 1516359915200
2014  local secure Connected Code (Yasmin B. Kafai, Quinn Burke) 18, 14, 18, 19, 19, 19, 11, 13, 21, 7, 18, 19129519728
2014SIGCSE 2014 (J. D. Dougherty, Kris Nagel, Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt) 10, 10, 15, 28, 8, 7, 12, 7, 16, 8, 9, 181958618267
2014WiPSCE 2014 (Carsten Schulte, Michael E. Caspersen, Judith Gal-Ezer) 15, 5, 11, 23, 7, 9, 11, 7, 12, 7, 13, 123423712500
2015SIGCSE 2015 (Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt, Carl Alphonce, Jodi Tims) 18, 16, 13, 16, 17, 6, 6, 7, 4, 1, 1, 5269133198
2015Proceedings of the Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, WiPSCE 2015, London, United Kingdom, November 9-11, 2015 (Judith Gal-Ezer, Sue Sentance, Jan Vahrenhold) 16, 11, 13, 25, 14, 10, 7, 9, 12, 8, 12, 191923819328
2015ICER 2015 (Brian Dorn, Judy Sheard, Quintin I. Cutts) 8, 9, 13, 22, 8, 7, 6, 6, 12, 7, 11, 193121219296
2015 local secure web Learner-Centered Design of Computing Education (Mark Guzdial) 7, 12, 18, 35, 31, 8, 9, 4, 12, 5, 13, 591035422
2016 local secure Introduction to Computing and Programming in Python (Mark Guzdial, Barbara J. Ericson) 5, 1, 7, 11, 2, 2, 8, 4, 6, 10, 8, 1012810274
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1972 local secure web Teaching Children To Be Mathematicians Versus Teaching About Mathematics (Seymour Papert) 2, 4, 2, 3, 4, 11, 8, 3, 3, 9, 3, 8688172
1977 local secure Personal Dynamic Media (Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg) 7, 2, 2, 16, 8, 7, 10, 4, 14, 8, 11, 113115111726
1986 local secure web Language‐Independent Conceptual «Bugs» in Novice Programming (Roy Pea) 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 5, 3, 4, 3, 10, 6416699
1989 local secure On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 5, 3, 6, 8, 9, 5, 10, 5, 11, 8, 4, 7191072000
1989 local secure web Taxonomies of Visual Programming and Program Visualization (Brad Myers) 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 2, 2, 2, 6, 247283
1990 local secure web Programming Languages in Education (Patrick Mendelsohn, T.R.G. Green, P. Brna) 4, 3, 4, 2, 7, 4, 7, 10, 10, 6, 9, 1021210198
1994 local secure web KidSim (David Canfield Smith, Allen Cypher, Jim Spohrer) 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 5, 3, 3, 2, 4, 61236269
1995 local secure web ToonTalk (Ken Kahn) 7600
1997 local secure web Undergraduate women in computer science (Allan Fisher, Jane Margolis, Faye Miller) 2600
2002 local secure web DrJava (Eric E. Allen, Robert Cartwright, Brian Stoler) 2400
2003 local secure web Learning and Teaching Programming (Anthony Robins, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree) 15500
2003 local secure web The BlueJ System and its Pedagogy (Michael Kölling, Bruce Quig, Andrew Patterson, John Rosenberg) 3100
2003 local secure web Measuring the effectiveness of robots in teaching computer science (Barry S. Fagin, Laurence D. Merkle) 2400
2004 local secure web The TeachScheme! Project (Matthias Felleisen, Robert Bruce Findler, Matthew Flatt, Shriram Krishnamurthi) 2100
2004 local secure web Programming Environments for Novices (Mark Guzdial) 4, 2, 3, 3, 3, 5, 6, 3, 14, 3, 8, 510405186
2005 local secure web A First Look at Novice Compilation Behaviour Using BlueJ (Matthew C. Jadud) 2100
2005 local secure web Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 4, 2, 6, 6, 9, 1, 9, 1, 11, 6, 6, 834178454
2006Cognitive Tutors (Kenneth R. Koedinger, Albert Corbett) 5000
2006 local secure web Computational Thinking (Jeannette M. Wing) 16, 12, 17, 25, 12, 9, 13, 12, 28, 16, 17, 23942123841
2007 local secure web Through the looking glass (Kris Powers, Stacey Ecott, Leanne M. Hirshfield) 4400
2007 local secure web Scratch for budding computer scientists (David J. Malan, Henry H. Leitner) 3400
2008 local secure web Compiler error messages (Marie-Hélène Nienaltowski, Michela Pedroni, Bertrand Meyer 0001) 2500
2008 local secure web Programming by choice (John H. Maloney, Kylie A. Peppler, Yasmin B. Kafai, Mitchel Resnick, Natalie Rusk) 6400
2009 local secure web Flexible, reusable tools for studying novice programmers (Matthew C. Jadud, Poul Henriksen) 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 3, 1, 2, 223239
2009 local secure web A CS unplugged design pattern (Tomohiro Nishida, Susumu Kanemune, Yukio Idosaka, Mitaro Namiki, Tim Bell, Yasushi Kuno) 3400
2009 local secure web Scratch: Programming for All (Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, Eric Rosenbaum, Jay Silver, Brian Silverman, Yasmin B. Kafai) 8, 6, 10, 15, 14, 4, 12, 7, 20, 8, 11, 16532816655
2010 local secure web How programming environment shapes perception, learning and goals (Colleen M. Lewis) 4, 3, 2, 3, 5, 3, 7, 4, 7, 7, 8, 61396152
2010Using alice in CS1 (Ryan Garlick, Ebru Celikel Cankaya) 4600
2011 local secure Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 10, 7, 9, 7, 7, 3, 6, 7, 9, 6, 11, 719107448
2011Understanding the syntax barrier for novices (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Ewan D. Tempero, Jacob Hendrickx) 5200
2011 local secure web Wozu JAVA? (Eckart Modrow, Jens Mönig, Kerstin Strecker) 10, 8, 15, 24, 21, 13, 9, 5, 12, 21, 16, 1632416730
2012 local secure web The fairy performance assessment (Linda L. Werner, Jill Denner, Shannon Campe, Damon Chizuru Kawamoto) 2600
2013 local secure web Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 6, 7, 10, 17, 12, 4, 9, 4, 15, 6, 10, 711357285
2013Robobuilder (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 2400
2014 local secure From Tools to Communities (Yasmin B. Kafai, Quinn Burke) 2, 3, 1, 2, 9, 3, 5, 3, 1, 5, 6, 6213675
2014 local secure web Should your 8-year-old learn coding? (Caitlin Duncan, Tim Bell, Steve Tanimoto) 7, 7, 8, 9, 16, 5, 8, 6, 14, 6, 7, 811368283
2014 local secure web Programming in the wild (Deborah A. Fields, Michael Giang, Yasmin B. Kafai) 9, 7, 8, 6, 4, 4, 10, 4, 7, 15, 12, 1671816368
2014Exploring computer science (Gail Chapman, Joanna Goode) 4300
2015 local secure web To Block or not to Block, That is the Question (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 6, 11, 10, 14, 9, 7, 4, 5, 10, 9, 14, 20131920243
2015 local secure web Comparing Textual and Block Interfaces in a Novice Programming Environment (Thomas W. Price, Tiffany Barnes) 6, 1, 6, 1, 4, 2, 4, 4, 7, 7, 9, 94159162
2015 local secure web Using Commutative Assessments to Compare Conceptual Understanding in Blocks-based and Text-based Programs (David Weintrop, Uri Wilensky) 4, 3, 5, 12, 10, 2, 6, 2, 7, 4, 7, 710257161
2015 local secure web Frame-Based Editing (Michael Kölling, Neil C. C. Brown, Amjad AlTadmri) 5, 8, 9, 5, 7, 5, 6, 8, 8, 7, 14, 83118157
2015 local secure web Language Migration in non-CS Introductory Programming through Mutual Language Translation Environment (Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Takashi Ohata, Manabu Sugiura, Sanshiro Sakai) 3400
2016 local secure web Beyond Blocks (R. Benjamin Shapiro, Matthew Ahrens) 3, 2, 4, 3, 5, 6, 4, 2, 6, 1, 10, 82178150

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