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Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education

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This thesis formulates and evaluates a pedagogical technique whose goal is to help beginners learn the basics of computer programming. The technique, visual program simulation (VPS), involves the learner in interactive simulations in which the learner takes on the role of the computer as the executor of a program. The student uses a given visualization of a so-called notional machine, an abstract computer, to illustrate what happens in memory as the computer processes the program. The purpose of these simulations is to help the beginner learn to reason about program execution, a skill whose development has been identified as a major challenge in introductory programming education. VPS promotes effective learning by seeking to cognitively engage the learner with a visualization. It can be made practical through visualization software. VPS software may also automatically assess students' simulations and provide personal feedback, which is a valuable asset especially in the large classes that are typical of introductory courses.
The thesis contributes to VPS in four ways. First, it formulates the concept of visual program simulation and outlines ist underpinnings in terms of learning theory. Second, it presents a new software prototype that facilitates the use of VPS in practice. Third, it reports on a preliminary empirical evaluation of VPS and the software in the context of an introductory programming course. Fourth, it makes recommendations on the use of VPS in teaching and the further development of VPS tools, which arise from the empirical work.
The findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of VPS suggest that it is a promising pedagogical approach that helps many students learn programming. At the same time, the evaluation highlights certain important weaknesses. The purpose of VPS is not obvious to many students. Care must be taken to ensure that students develop a rich understanding of what VPS is and what they stand to gain from it. For best results, it is recommended that VPS be tightly integrated into the teaching and learning environment. The results from a controlled experiment further indicate that the short-term learning benefits of a VPS assignment are heavily dependent on which interactions the assignment demands from students. This implies that extreme care must be taken in the design of VPS systems and specific assignments so that required user interactions are aligned with intended learning goals.
On a more general level, the thesis serves as an example of educational tool development that is grounded in learning theory and informed by empirical evaluations. A fairly broad review of the literature on learning and teaching introductory programming is also contributed.
Von Juha Sorva in der Dissertation Visual Program Simulation in Introductory Programming Education (2012)

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Personen
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Tuukka Ahoniemi, Kirsti Ala-Mutka, Lorin W. Anderson, Michal Armoni, Michael E.Caspersen, D.P. Ausubel, Tapio Auvinen, Michael Barg, Roman Bednarik, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Jens Bennedsen, B. S. Bloom, Charles Boisvert, Shirley Booth, Benedict du Boulay, Jonas Boustedt, Matt Bower, John Seely Brown, Jerome S. Bruner, Angela Carbone, Michael E. Caspersen, Mike Clancy, Richard E. Clark, Allan Collins, D. E. Comer, Kate Crawford, Nell B. Dale, Peter Denning, Paul Denny, F. Détienne, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Hubert L. Dreyfus, S. Dreyfus, Tommy Dreyfus, David Dunning, Gil Ebel, Anna Eckerdal, Albrecht Ehlert, Allison Elliott Tew, Alan Fekete, John D. Ferguson, Colin J. Fidge, Sally Fincher, Vashti Galpin, Erich Gamma, Tina Götschi, Tony Greening, David Gries, Scott Grissom, Mark Guzdial, John Hamer, Richard Helm, Juha Helminen, Jacob Hendrickx, J.-M. Hoc, Owen Hollands, Meriel Huggard, Dan Ingalls, Essi Isohanni, Hannu-Matti Järvinen, Ralph Johnson, Ted Kaehler, Ville Karavirta, Alan Kay, Judy Kay, Caitlin Kelleher, Jeffrey H. Kingston, Paul A. Kirschner, Dieter Klaudt, Gary Klein, Maria Knobelsdorf, Michael Kölling, Steve Kollmansberger, Ari Korhonen, David R. Krathwohl, Justin Kruger, Marja Kuittinen, Susumu Kunifuji, Mikko-Jussi Laakso, Mikko Laakso, Essi Lahtinen, Raymond Lister, Mike Lopez, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Linxiao Ma, Lauri Malmi, John Maloney, Robert McCartney, Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Suvi Melakoski-Vistbacka, Mihail Mihaylov, George Miller, Motoki Miura, John Monk, Jan Erik Moström, Michael C. Mulder, Orna Muller, Brad Myers, Niko Myller, Seppo Nevalainen, S. E. Newmann, Jakob Nielsen, Tim O'Shea, David B. Palumbo, John F. Pane, Andrew Patterson, Randy Pausch, Roy Pea, J. Mark Pullen, Helen C. Purchase, Bruce Quig, Noa Ragonis, Chotirat Ann Ratanamahatana, L. B. Resnick, Phil Robbins, Anthony Robins, Marc Roper, John Rosenberg, Isla Ross, Guido Rößling, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree, Jorma Sajaniemi, Jerome Saltmarsh, Kate Sanders, Ian D. Sanders, André L. Santos, Amitrajit Sarkar, R. Keith Sawyer, Carsten Schulte, Judy Sheard, L. Shulman, Beth Simon, Simon, Elliot Soloway, Juha Sorva, Christian Spannagel, Jim Spohrer, Ioanna Stamouli, John T. Stasko, Taro Sugihara, Erkki Sutinen, John Sweller, Ahmad Taherkhani, Grace Tan, Donna Teague, Matti Tedre, Ewan D. Tempero, Lynda Thomas, Errol Thompson, Allen Tucker, A. Joe Turner, Mark J. Van Gorp, Anne Venables, W. Visser, John Vlissides, Scott Wallace, Jacqueline L. Whalley, Murray Wood, Cecile Yehezkel, Paul R. Young, Carol Zander, Andreas Zendler

Begriffe
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Fehlvorstellungen / misconceptions, Fehlvorstellungen beim Programmieren, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich bedingten Anweisungen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Initialisierung, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Kontrollstrukturen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Rekursion, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Schleifen, Fehlvorstellungen bezüglich Variablen, notional machine, OOPobject oriented programming, Programmierenprogramming, Programmierkonzepteprogramming concepts, Rekursionrecursion
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Bücher
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1956  Taxonomy of educational objectives (B. S. Bloom) 4, 2, 8, 3, 10, 12, 13, 9, 7, 13, 18, 71042572773
1960 local secure The Process of Education (Jerome S. Bruner) 5, 5, 11, 9, 15, 17, 12, 8, 12, 9, 17, 127016122469
1968Educational Psychology (D.P. Ausubel) 31000
1979 local secure On Knowing (Jerome S. Bruner) 1, 2, 3, 1, 3, 3, 2, 1, 4, 1, 1, 421484
1986  local secure Mind over Machine (Hubert L. Dreyfus, S. Dreyfus) 11, 7, 17, 20, 25, 30, 25, 22, 21, 16, 22, 2435149247236
1988  local secure Studying the Novice Programmer (Elliot Soloway, Jim Spohrer) 2, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 13, 3, 10, 5, 15, 10504510219
1989Knowing, Learning, and Instruction (L. B. Resnick) 5, 2, 9, 11, 14, 21, 14, 5, 8, 19, 19, 91191291963
1990Psychology of Programming (J.-M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurçay, D.J. Gilmore) 3, 1, 5, 1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 8, 4, 20, 88398328
1994  local secure Usability Engineering (Jakob Nielsen) 2, 4, 6, 6, 12, 10, 14, 24, 15, 14, 26, 113044115487
1995  local secure Design Patterns (Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides) 7, 3, 9, 5, 10, 17, 17, 17, 31, 7, 19, 8421384096
1998Sources of Power (Gary Klein) 2, 4, 5, 2, 4, 2, 4, 5, 2, 3, 9, 4314331
2000Computer Science Education 2/20001, 1, 2, 3, 5, 3, 3, 2, 6, 5, 8, 4184141
2000A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing (Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl) 4, 4, 7, 4, 8, 11, 19, 4, 10, 7, 24, 642261223
2001Computer Science Education 3/20012, 1, 3, 3, 5, 5, 9, 6, 7, 3, 10, 44134171
2001Computer Science Education 4/20012, 2, 3, 1, 6, 2, 3, 2, 6, 6, 8, 2152102
2003Computer Science Education 2/20038, 12, 8, 1, 7, 3, 5, 3, 8, 2, 5, 1118911181
2003Computer Science Education 4/20031, 1, 5, 1, 6, 6, 4, 3, 6, 2, 8, 6496190
2003SIGCSE 2003 (Scott Grissom, Deborah Knox, Daniel T. Joyce, Wanda Dann) 1, 3, 3, 1, 12, 15, 8, 4, 9, 10, 13, 782267106
2004Computer Science Education 2/20041, 1, 4, 1, 4, 3, 3, 3, 5, 5, 9, 5495153
2005Computer Science Education 1/20051, 2, 4, 1, 6, 4, 4, 6, 6, 3, 8, 3673147
2005Computer Science Education 2/20052, 2, 2, 5, 5, 6, 2, 1, 4, 2, 6, 2742117
2005Computer Science Education 3/20051, 9, 15, 6, 5, 1, 3, 1, 6, 3, 4, 4354134
2005ICER 2005 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 2, 3, 6, 4, 9, 22, 11, 2, 4, 4, 17, 615556210
2006 local secure The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (R. Keith Sawyer) 12, 20, 11, 11, 18, 24, 20, 9, 16, 11, 18, 10576410911
2006ICER 2006 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 3, 3, 5, 1, 8, 10, 4, 6, 5, 1, 16, 521525211
2007Computer Science Education 2/20071, 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 3, 4, 5, 5, 8, 3173144
2007ITiCSE 2007 (Janet Hughes, D. Ramanee Peiris, Paul T. Tymann) 3, 4, 9, 7, 11, 30, 9, 5, 14, 6, 14, 113826511700
2007ICER 2007 (Richard J. Anderson, Sally Fincher, Mark Guzdial) 3, 3, 3, 2, 7, 17, 16, 1, 6, 3, 17, 322453205
2008Computer Science Education 3/20081, 1, 1, 1, 5, 1, 3, 5, 3, 3, 4, 2262105
2008Computer Science Education 4/20082, 1, 3, 1, 4, 10, 3, 4, 5, 3, 8, 70127150
2008 local secure Reflections on the Teaching of Programming (Jens Bennedsen, Michael E.Caspersen, Michael Kölling) 1, 1, 2, 1, 6, 10, 3, 2, 4, 2, 3, 52105246
2008ITiCSE 2008 (June Amillo, Cary Laxer, Ernestina Menasalvas Ruiz, Alison Young) 12, 15, 20, 19, 17, 23, 26, 13, 15, 15, 19, 1623274161062
2008ICER 2008 (Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister, Mike Clancy) 1, 2, 6, 4, 9, 8, 7, 4, 9, 9, 18, 832438193
2009ITiCSE 2009 (Patrick Brézillon, Ingrid Russell, Jean-Marc Labat) 3, 5, 16, 10, 16, 29, 15, 6, 11, 9, 11, 132531613885
2009ICER 2009 (Michael J. Clancy, Michael E. Caspersen, Raymond Lister) 2, 2, 3, 2, 5, 5, 9, 3, 4, 4, 10, 815318137
2010Computer Science Education 1/20106, 7, 5, 1, 7, 3, 3, 1, 9, 4, 3, 68116142
2010ITiCSE 2010 (Reyyan Ayfer, John Impagliazzo, Cary Laxer) 19, 18, 13, 22, 35, 38, 23, 19, 23, 13, 25, 1819237181341
2010ICER 2010 (Michael E. Caspersen, Michael J. Clancy, Kate Sanders) 1, 3, 4, 3, 13, 19, 13, 10, 6, 4, 13, 722607240
2011Computer Science Education 1/20113, 1, 4, 1, 5, 3, 6, 3, 7, 5, 11, 96209176
2011ITiCSE 2011 (Guido Rößling, Thomas L. Naps, Christian Spannagel) 17, 18, 21, 21, 28, 27, 17, 14, 18, 11, 23, 1749318172445
2012Computer Science Education 4/20121, 1, 1, 4, 4, 4, 2, 1, 7, 4, 6, 4294138
2013Computer Science Education 3/20135, 2, 6, 5, 10, 12, 12, 3, 5, 6, 15, 512435278
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Texte
Jahr  Umschlag Titel Abrufe IBOBKBLB
1956 local secure web The Magical Number Seven (George Miller) 3, 3, 5, 3, 6, 4, 2, 6, 9, 14, 23, 551351466
1981 local secure The black box inside the glass box (Benedict du Boulay, Tim O'Shea, John Monk) 2, 1, 6, 2, 4, 12, 13, 5, 11, 4, 15, 916149403
1986 local secure web Those who understand (L. Shulman) 57, 173, 163, 226, 108, 39, 32, 15, 20, 18, 27, 10508101220
1986 local secure web Language‐Independent Conceptual «Bugs» in Novice Programming (Roy Pea) 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 5, 3, 4, 3416383
1986 local secure web Learning to program = learning to construct mechanisms and explanations (Elliot Soloway) 3, 2, 4, 1, 1, 2, 4, 4, 6, 2, 5, 91299121
1989 local secure On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (Edsger W. Dijkstra) 3, 4, 5, 3, 6, 8, 9, 5, 10, 5, 11, 8191081989
1989 local secure Cognitive Apprenticeship (Allan Collins, John Seely Brown, S. E. Newmann) 2, 3, 8, 12, 19, 60, 10, 6, 7, 8, 15, 5961152932
1989 local secure web Computing as a Discipline (Peter Denning, D. E. Comer, David Gries, Michael C. Mulder, Allen Tucker, A. Joe Turner, Paul R. Young) 2, 1, 2, 3, 7, 6, 8, 6, 6, 2, 7, 72077197
1989 local secure web Taxonomies of Visual Programming and Program Visualization (Brad Myers) 1, 3, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 2, 2, 237275
1990 local secure web Expert Programming Knowledge: A Schema-based Approach (F. Détienne) 1100
1990 local secure web Expert Software Design Strategies (W. Visser, J.-M. Hoc) 1100
1990 local secure web Programming Language/Problem-Solving Research (David B. Palumbo) 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2, 5, 6, 5, 12, 58235196
1994Usability Heuristics (Jakob Nielsen) 1100
1997 local secure web Back to the Future (Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, John Maloney, Scott Wallace, Alan Kay) 7, 11, 7, 4, 4, 2, 4, 1, 4, 3, 7, 1112711793
1998 local secure web Constructivism in Computer Science Education (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 1, 3, 6, 6, 7, 7, 5, 5, 9, 6, 14, 813278256
1999 local secure web Unskilled and Unaware of It (Justin Kruger, David Dunning) 12, 11, 65, 66, 51, 27, 8, 10, 19, 15, 11, 1211812986
2000 local secure web Problem-Based Learning for Foundation Computer Science Courses (Judy Kay, Michael Barg, Alan Fekete, Tony Greening, Owen Hollands, Jeffrey H. Kingston, Kate Crawford) 1100
2001 local secure web Studying the Language and Structure in Non-Programmers’ Solutions to Programming Problems (John F. Pane, Chotirat Ann Ratanamahatana, Brad Myers) 1, 1, 8, 3, 6, 6, 3, 3, 8, 5, 7, 85188262
2001 local secure web An Empirical Evaluation of Using Constructive Classroom Activities to Teach Introductory Programming (Mark J. Van Gorp, Scott Grissom) 3, 7, 16, 5, 4, 5, 8, 5, 3, 3, 6, 1181146
2001 local secure web The Network Workbench and Constructivism (J. Mark Pullen) 1100
2001 local secure web Models and Areas for CS Education Research (Mike Clancy, John T. Stasko, Mark Guzdial, Sally Fincher, Nell B. Dale) 1100
2001 local secure web Learning Computer Science and Engineering in Context (Shirley Booth) 2100
2003 local secure web Learning and Teaching Programming (Anthony Robins, Janet Rountree, Nathan Rountree) 15500
2003 local secure web The BlueJ System and its Pedagogy (Michael Kölling, Bruce Quig, Andrew Patterson, John Rosenberg) 3100
2003 local secure web Mental models of recursion (Tina Götschi, Ian D. Sanders, Vashti Galpin) 2, 2, 2, 1, 4, 12, 3, 1, 5, 3, 7, 9312972
2004 local secure web Situated Learning in Computer Science Education (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 4100
2005 local secure web An Experiment on Using Roles of Variables in Teaching Introductory Programming (Jorma Sajaniemi, Marja Kuittinen) 4300
2005 local secure web A long-term investigation of the comprehension of OOP concepts by novices (Noa Ragonis, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 3100
2005 local secure web A Survey of Automated Assessment Approaches for Programming Assignments (Kirsti Ala-Mutka) 7100
2005 local secure web Lowering the barriers to programming (Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch) 2, 1, 4, 2, 6, 6, 9, 1, 9, 1, 11, 633176440
2005 local secure web Pattern oriented instruction and the enhancement of analogical reasoning (Orna Muller) 2, 4, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 3, 4, 7, 311367
2006 local secure web Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work (Paul A. Kirschner, John Sweller, Richard E. Clark) 2, 2, 5, 4, 10, 5, 6, 4, 6, 11, 16, 326213755
2006 local secure web What do teachers teach in introductory programming? (Carsten Schulte, Jens Bennedsen) 1, 3, 3, 2, 4, 1, 3, 2, 7, 5, 6, 7387103
2006 local secure web An experiment on short-term effects of animated versus static visualization of operations on program perception (Seppo Nevalainen, Jorma Sajaniemi) 3, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 4, 3, 6, 5, 5, 413466
2006 local secure web Object oriented programming and program correctness (Ioanna Stamouli, Meriel Huggard) 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 3, 9, 4, 4, 2, 5, 524572
2006 local secure web Imagineering inauthentic legitimate peripheral participation (Mark Guzdial, Allison Elliott Tew) 1, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 6, 7, 10, 103710106
2006 local secure web Affective effects of program visualization (Gil Ebel, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 1, 1, 3, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 5, 3, 13, 412456
2007 local secure web The contribution of visualization to learning computer architecture (Cecile Yehezkel, Mordechai Ben-Ari, Tommy Dreyfus) 1100
2007Analyzing engagement taxonomy in collaborative algorithm visualization (Niko Myller, Mikko Laakso, Ari Korhonen) 1200
2007Targeting program visualizations (Essi Lahtinen, Hannu-Matti Järvinen, Suvi Melakoski-Vistbacka) 1200
2007 local secure web Instructional design of a programming course (Michael E. Caspersen, Jens Bennedsen) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 2, 1, 3, 3, 3, 231252
2007 local secure web From Limen to Lumen (Anna Eckerdal, Robert McCartney, Jan Erik Moström, Kate Sanders, Lynda Thomas, Carol Zander) 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 5, 4, 9, 311372
2008 local secure web Three traditions of computing (Matti Tedre, Erkki Sutinen) 1100
2008 local secure web Process as content in computer science education (Andreas Zendler, Christian Spannagel, Dieter Klaudt) 1200
2008Going SOLO to assess novice programmers (Judy Sheard, Angela Carbone, Raymond Lister, Beth Simon, Errol Thompson, Jacqueline L. Whalley) 3200
2008A taxonomy of task types in computing (Matt Bower) 1200
2008 local secure web Paving the Way for Computational Thinking (Mark Guzdial) 3, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 2, 6, 3, 5, 65106180
2008 local secure web Evaluating a new exam question (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Beth Simon) 1, 2, 3, 2, 2, 8, 1, 4, 8, 4, 11, 131191394
2008 local secure web Relationships between reading, tracing and writing skills in introductory programming (Mike Lopez, Jacqueline L. Whalley, Phil Robbins, Raymond Lister) 1, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 4, 4, 7, 2, 5, 6103685
2009Anchor garden (Motoki Miura, Taro Sugihara, Susumu Kunifuji) 1200
2009Further evidence of a relationship between explaining, tracing and writing skills in introductory programming (Raymond Lister, Colin J. Fidge, Donna Teague) 5300
2009Improving the mental models held by novice programmers using cognitive conflict and jeliot visualisations (Linxiao Ma, John D. Ferguson, Marc Roper, Isla Ross, Murray Wood) 2200
2009Rubyric (Tapio Auvinen, Ville Karavirta, Tuukka Ahoniemi) 1200
2009Computer science student transformations (Jan Erik Moström, Jonas Boustedt, Anna Eckerdal, Robert McCartney, Kate Sanders, Lynda Thomas, Carol Zander) 1200
2009A visualisation tool for the programming process (Charles Boisvert) 1200
2009 local secure web Empirical comparison of objects-first and objects-later (Albrecht Ehlert, Carsten Schulte) 4, 15, 11, 5, 8, 8, 14, 9, 10, 10, 9, 6216205
2009 local secure web A closer look at tracing, explaining and code writing skills in the novice programmer (Anne Venables, Grace Tan, Raymond Lister) 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 273238
2010 local secure web Learning edge momentum (Anthony Robins) 7500
2010Helping students build a mental model of computation (Steve Kollmansberger) 2200
2010From phenomenography study to planning teaching (Errol Thompson) 2200
2010Comparison of OOP first and OOP later (Albrecht Ehlert, Carsten Schulte) 1300
2010 local secure Objects Never? Well, Hardly Ever! (Mordechai Ben-Ari) 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 4, 8, 3, 4, 2, 5, 124193
2010 local secure web Characterizing research in computing education (Lauri Malmi, Judy Sheard, Simon, Roman Bednarik, Juha Helminen, Ari Korhonen, Niko Myller, Juha Sorva, Ahmad Taherkhani) 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 1, 6, 2, 5, 331379
2010 local secure web Behind the curtain (Essi Isohanni, Maria Knobelsdorf) 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 4, 3, 3, 321344
2011 local secure web Investigating and improving the models of programming concepts held by novice programmers (Linxiao Ma, John D. Ferguson, Marc Roper, Murray Wood) 2, 1, 2, 5, 5, 5, 10, 5, 5, 3, 6, 75177187
2011 local secure Habits of programming in scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 2, 1, 10, 7, 9, 7, 7, 3, 6, 7, 9, 618106430
2011Understanding the syntax barrier for novices (Paul Denny, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Ewan D. Tempero, Jacob Hendrickx) 5200
2011AGUIA/J (André L. Santos) 1200
2011AnimalSense (Guido Rößling, Mihail Mihaylov, Jerome Saltmarsh) 1300
2011Relationship between text and action conceptions of programming (Anna Eckerdal, Mikko-Jussi Laakso, Mike Lopez, Amitrajit Sarkar) 1300
2012 local secure web Contributing student pedagogy (John Hamer, Judy Sheard, Helen C. Purchase, Andrew Luxton-Reilly) 2100
2013 local secure web Learning computer science concepts with Scratch (Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai Ben-Ari) 2, 2, 6, 7, 10, 17, 12, 4, 9, 4, 15, 611356268

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